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Full text of "Arts participation in America: 1982-1992"

Arts Participation in America: 

1982-1992 



Prepared by: 
Jack Faucett Associates 

Compiled by: 

John P. Robinson 

Professor of Sociology 

University of Maryland 



October 1 993 



Research Division Report #27 

NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS 



Arts Participation in America: 

1982-1992 



Prepared by: 
Jack Faucett Associates 

Compiled by: 

John P. Robinson 

Professor of Sociology 

University of Maryland 



October 1 993 



Research Division Report #27 

NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS 



Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 

Arts participation in America : 1982-1992 / Jack Faucett Associates : 
compiled by John P. Robinson. 

129 p. 28 cm. ~ (Research Division report : 27) 

"November 1993. " 

1. Arts audiences— United States. 2. Arts surveys—United States. 
I. Robinson, John P. II. Jack Faucett Associates. HI Series: 
Research Division report (National Endowment for the Arts. Research 
Division) : 27 
NX220.A78 1993 
700\973'09048--dc20 93-31039 

cn> 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Chapter Page 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY i 

Sponsorship and Conduct of the Survey i 

Principal Findings i 

I. Participation through Live Attendance i 

Live Audience Attendance in 1992 by Arts Activity i 

Differences between 1992 and 1982 Attendance Rates ii 

Demographic Factors and 1992 Attendance Rates iii 

Differences Between 1992 and 1982 Demographic Correlates iv 

II. Participation through Broadcast and Recorded Media iv 

Participation Via Media in 1992 by Arts Activity iv 

Differences between 1992 and 1982 v 

Demographic Correlates of Participation through Broadcast and Recorded 

Media: 1992 and 1982 v 

III. Participation in the Arts through Personal Performance and 

Creation vii 

Comparisons of the Different Types of Arts Participation viii 

Comparisons of Participation in the Arts with Participation in Other 

Leisure Activities viii 

Attitudes towards the Arts ix 

Summary ; ix 

FOREWORD xi 

Purpose xi 

History xi 

Data Collection xii 

Outline of the Questionnaire xii 

Survey Methodology xiii 

Differences in Questions Asked xiii 

Using the Data in this Report xiv 

Data Tabulations and Projections xv 

Organization of the Report xv 



TABLE OF CONTENTS -- (Continued) 



Chapter Page 

CHAPTER I. ATTENDANCE AT LIVE ARTS PERFORMANCES/EVENTS . . 1 

A. General Attendance 1 

1. 1992 Attendance Levels 1 

2. 1992 Frequencies of Attendance 3 

3. Trends in Attendance Levels: 1982-92 4 

B. Demographic Differences in Attendance Levels 7 

1. Attendance Characteristics: 8 

2. Audience Demographics for the Benchmark Arts Activities 10 

3. Trends in Arts Attendance by Demographic Factors: 1982-92 .... 19 



CHAPTER II. ARTS PARTICIPATION THROUGH BROADCAST AND 

RECORDED MEDIA 25 

A. General Usage of Broadcast and Recorded Media Arts Programming ... 25 

1. 1992 Arts Participation Levels Via Broadcast and Recorded 
Media 25 

2. 1992 Viewings of Arts Activities on Video 27 

3. Trends in the Usage of Media for Arts Content: 1982-1992 28 

B. Arts Media Audiences by Demographic Factors 32 

1. 1982 and 1992 Demographic Differences in Arts Media 
Participation 33 

2. Readings of Poetry and Novels 34 



CHAPTER III. PERSONAL PARTICIPATION IN THE ARTS 35 

A. Personal Performances and Arts/Crafts Activities 35 

1. 1992 Personal Participation in the Arts 35 

2. 1992 Demographic Differences in Personal Arts Participation .... 37 

3. Changes in Personal Participation in the Arts Across Time 38 

B. Art Classes and Lessons 40 

Demographic Differences in Participation in Arts Classes 41 



li 



TABLE OF CONTENTS - (Continued) 



Chapter Page 

CHAPTER IV. COMPARISONS OF TYPES OF ARTS PARTICIPATION ... 42 

A. Different Types of Arts Participation: 1992 42 

B. Participation in Other Leisure Activities 44 

1 . Comparison of Arts Participation to Participation in Other Leisure 
Activities 45 

2. Demographic Differences in Participation in Other Leisure 
Activities 46 

CHAPTER V. ARTS ATTITUDES AND PREDISPOSITION TO THE ARTS . 47 

A. Interest in Increased Attendance 47 

Demographic Differences in Increased Interests in Arts Attendances .... 48 

B. Music Preferences 48 

Demographic Differences in Music Preferences 50 

C. Parental Education 51 

CHAPTER VI. RELATED RESEARCH 52 

Insights from 12 Local Arts Participation Surveys 52 

CHAPTER VII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 54 

A. Major Results 54 

1. Attendance at Live Arts Performances/Displays 54 

2. Media Audiences for Arts Programming 55 

3. Personal Arts Participation 56 

4. Arts Attitudes 57 

B. Conclusions 58 



APPENDIX A: 
APPENDIX B: 
APPENDIX C: 
APPENDIX D: 
APPENDIX E: 
APPENDIX F: 
APPENDIX G: 
APPENDIX H: 



LIVE ATTENDANCE ITEMS 
MEDIA ATTENDANCE ITEMS 
PERSONAL PARTICIPATION ITEMS 
OTHER LEISURE ACTIVITY ITEMS 
ARTS ATTITUDES ITEMS 
SURVEY METHODOLOGY 
MEASUREMENT OF SAMPLING ERRORS 
AREAS FOR ADDITIONAL RESEARCH 



in 



LIST OF TABLES 

Table Page 

TABLES IN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: 

I: 1992 LIVE ATTENDANCE LEVELS FOR VARIOUS ARTS ACTIVITIES ... ii 

II: 1992 RATES OF ARTS PARTICIPATION VIA BROADCAST AND 

RECORDED MEDIA v 

III: 1992 PERSONAL ART PARTICIPATION LEVELS vii 

IV: PARTICIPATION IN LEISURE ACTIVITIES ix 



TABLES IN CHAPTERS: 



1.1 
1.2 
1.3 
1.4 
1.5 

1.6 
1.7 
1.8 
1.9 



1992 ATTENDANCE LEVELS FOR VARIOUS ARTS ACTIVITIES 2 

1992 FREQUENCIES OF ATTENDANCE 3 

1992-82 DIFFERENCES IN ATTENDANCE RATES 5 

1992-82 DIFFERENCES IN TOTAL NUMBERS OF ATTENDERS 7 

1992 ATTENDANCE RATES FOR ANY BENCHMARK ART ACTIVITY 

BY DEMOGRAPHIC GROUP 9 

1982-1992 CHANGES IN ATTENDANCE RATES BY EDUCATION 21 

1982-1992 CHANGES IN ATTENDANCE RATES BY INCOME 21 

1982-1999 CHANGES IN ATTENDANCE RATES BY AGE 22 

1982-1992 COHORT DIFFERENCES rN ARTS ATTENDANCE TRENDS ... 23 



II. 1: 1992 RATES OF ARTS PARTICIPATION VIA BROADCAST AND 

RECORDED MEDIA 26 

II.2: 1992 POPULATION ESTIMATES OF BROADCAST AND RECORDED 

MEDIA ARTS AUDIENCES 27 

II.3: 1992 ESTIMATED NUMBER OF VIE WINGS OF ARTS PROGRAMS 

ON VIDEO 28 

II.4: 1982-92 DIFFERENCES IN USAGE OF BROADCAST AND RECORDED 

MEDIA FOR ARTS RELATED CONTENT 29 



IV 



LIST OF TABLES - (Continued) 



Table Page 



II.5: 1982-92 PERCENTAGE CHANGES IN THE SIZES OF ARTS 

MEDIA AUDIENCES 32 



III.l 
III.2 
III.3 



V.l 
V.2 
V.3 



1992 PERSONAL ARTS PARTICIPATION LEVELS 36 

CHANGES IN SELECTED PERSONAL ARTS PARTICIPATION RATES ... 39 
LIFETIME PARTICIPATION IN ARTS CLASSES/LESSONS 40 



IV. 1: 1992 ARTS PARTICIPATION RATES BY TYPE OF PARTICIPATION ..... 43 
IV.2: PARTICIPATION IN LEISURE ACTIVITIES 44 



DESIRE TO ATTEND MORE ARTS PERFORMANCES 47 

MUSIC PREFERENCES 49 

HIGHEST EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF PARENTS 51 



LIST OF FIGURES 

Figure Page 

FIGURES IN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: 

I: General Attendance Rates for Benchmark Arts Activities: 1982 

to 1992 iii 

Ila: Arts Participation Through Television: 1982-1992 vi 

lib: Arts Participation Through Radio: 1982-1992 vi 

He: Arts Participation Through Recordings: 1982-1992 vi 



FIGURE IN CHAPTERS: 

1 General Attendance Rates: 1982-1992 6 

2 1 992 Attendance at Jazz Performances 11 

3 1992 Attendance at Classical Music Performances 12 

4 1992 Attendance at Opera Performances 13 

5 1992 Attendance at Musicals 14 

6 1992 Attendance at Plays 15 

7 1992 Attendance at Ballet Performances 16 

8 1992 Attendance at Art Museums 17 

9 1992 Participation in Literature Reading 18 

10 Differences in Attendance Rates by Gender 19 

1 1 Differences in Attendance Rates by Race 20 

12 1982-92 Trends in Media Participation: Television 30 

13 1982-92 Trends in Media Participation: Radio 30 

14 Arts Participation Through Recordings 31 



vi 



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 



Sponsorship and Conduct of the Survey 



This report describes the initial analysis of results from the 1992 nationwide Survey of Public 
Participation in the Arts (SPPA). The survey was funded by the National Endowment for the 
Arts and conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The data described in this report were 
collected in household surveys as part of a larger national survey which used revolving panels 
of approximately 1,000 adult (over age 18) Americans who were interviewed each month in 
1992. The total sample size was 12,736. About three-quarters of the interviews were 
conducted by telephone, and one quarter of the respondents were interviewed face-to-face in 
their homes. The response rate was above 80 percent. 

The interviews during the first six months of 1992 averaged about eight minutes and covered 
both attendance at live arts events and participation in the arts by means of broadcast and 
recorded media. The interviews during the second six months lasted 7-10 minutes longer and 
asked additional questions about personal arts participation, by performing or creating, as well 
as questions about arts attitudes and about participation in other leisure activities. 

Most of the questions in the 1992 SPPA had been asked in similar surveys in 1982 and 1985, 
and this report shows comparisons of these responses over the decade. New questions in the 
1992 SPPA concerned use of video cassette recordings (VCR), various dance forms other than 
ballet, and different types of popular music. In general, the 1992 questionnaire asked more 
varied and detailed questions about arts participation. 



Principal Findings 



I. Participation through Live Attendance 



Live Audience Attendance in 1992 by Arts Activity 



All SPPA'92 respondents were asked whether they had participated, by attendance, in each of 
1 1 arts activities during the previous 12 months. Table I shows the attendance rate, total 
audience, and total number of attendances in decreasing order of audience size. The 
respondents' rates of attendance were multiplied by the U.S. adult population in mid- 1992 
(185.8 million) to obtain the total audience size for each arts activity. The total number of 
attendances for each activity was estimated by multiplying the average number of attendances 
per respondent for each activity by the respective audience size. 



TABLE I: 1992 LIVE ATTENDANCE LEVELS FOR VARIOUS ARTS 

ACTIVITIES 


Arts Activity 


Attendance Rate 
(Percentage) 


Estimated 

U.S. 
Audience* 
(Millions) 


Total 

Number of 

Attendances 

(Millions) 


Opera (B) 


3.3 


6.1 


10.4 


Ballet (B) 


4.7 


8.7 


14.8 


Other Dance 


7.1 


13.2 


39.6 


Jazz (B) 


10.6 


19.7 


57.1 


Classical Music (B) 


12.5 


23.2 


60.3 


Plays (B) 


13.5 


25.1 


60.2 


Musicals (B) 


17.4 


32.3 


74.3 


Art Museums (B) 


26.7 


49.6 


163.7 


Historic Parks 


34.5 


64.1 


243.6 


Art/Craft Fairs (B) 


40.7 


75.6 


204.1 


Reading Literature 


54.0 


100.3 


NA 



Computed by multiplying the attendance rate by the U.S. adult population (185.8 million). 
NA Not applicable. 
B Benchmark activities. 



Differences between 1992 and 1982 Attendance Rates 



Figure I shows the changes between 1982 and 1992 in the seven arts activities established as 
"benchmark activities" in 1982. The largest change in attendance rates (1992 rate minus 1982 
rate) was an increase of 4.6 percentage points in attendance at art museums and a decrease of 
4.5 percentage points in attendance at historic parks. These changes in percentages of 
attendance were statistically significant and were equivalent to differences in audience sizes 
of more than 8 million adults in 1992. A non-significant increase of 1.6 percentage points for 
plays was offset by a decrease of 1.2 percentage points for musicals. Attendance rates for 
ballet increased from 4.2 percent to 4.7 percent, and attendance for opera increased from 3.0 
to 3.3 percent. Attendance at arts/crafts fairs increased by 1.7 percentage points. Reading 
literature (novels, short stories, poems, or plays) decreased by 2.9 percentage points, but the 
question in 1992 was different from the question in 1982. Table 1.3 in Chapter I presents the 
complete data for 1982, 1985, and 1992. 



u 



30 



25 






CL> 

Q_ 



■i 20 



15 



01 

g 10 



5 




GENERAL ATTENDANCE RATES 

FOR BENCHMARK ARTS ACTIVITIES: 

1982 to 1992 



i 




m 1982 
D 1985 
■ 1992 



Opera 



Ballet 



Jazz 



Classical 
Music 



Plays 



Musicals Art 

Museum 



Figure I 



Overall, more than 41 percent of American adults reported that, during the preceding year, they 
had attended at least one of the seven benchmark arts performances/events shown in Figure I. 
In 1982 these seven arts performances/events were established as benchmark activities, to be 
used for comparison in later surveys. In 1982, and again in 1985, this overall participation 
index in benchmark activities was 39 percent. 



Demographic Factors and 1992 Attendance Rates 



Variations in attendance rates by five demographic variables — gender, race, age, education, 
and income — were examined to identify major determinants of attendance. Attained level of 
education clearly was the strongest predictor of attendance at arts performances/events. As was 
the case in 1982 and 1985, the higher the level of education, the higher the attendance rate for 
arts activities. High income also was a strong predictor of higher attendance, but in large part 
due to its connection to education. Other differences among demographic groups include: 

Attendance by women was slightly higher than attendance by men. 

Attendance by middle-aged and younger adults was higher than attendance by 
older people. 



in 



Attendance by white respondents was higher than attendance by black 
respondents or other racial groups. 

Figures 2 through 9 in Chapter I illustrate these demographic differences in attendance at arts 
events. 



Differences Between 1992 and 1982 Demographic Correlates 



The conclusions concerning demographic differences in 1992 are much as they were in 1982. 
Most changes were small and did not form regular patterns. Some differences between 1992 
and 1982 were found in the relationship between income level and rate of attendance, but these 
differences are difficult to interpret because of differences due to inflation. Thus, the survey 
questions concerning income do not reflect increases over the decade in personal income, ticket 
prices, transportation, or otner costs associated with attendance. Full data are reported in 
Appendix A.4. 



II. Participation through Broadcast and Recorded Media 



Participation Via Media in 1992 by Arts Activity 



In general, far more people come in contact with the arts through television, radio, and 
recordings than by attendance at live performances/exhibitions. Table II shows the rates of 
participation (attendance) through media for each of the seven arts activities and compares 
them with the rates for live attendance. Rates of participation through television are higher 
than live attendance rates for all arts activities, and rates of participation through radio are 
higher than live attendance for jazz, classical music, and opera. Significant new participation 
in the arts via video recordings was reported in 1992. 



IV 



TABLE n: 1992 RATES OF ARTS PARTICIPATION 
VIA BROADCAST AND RECORDED MEDIA 


Arts Type 


TV 


VCR 


TV or 

VCR 

Video* 


Radio 


Recordings 


Attendance 

at Live 
Performances 


Jazz 


21% 


4% 


22% 


28% 


21% 


11% 


Classical 
Music 


25 


4 


26 


31 


24 


13 


Opera 


12 


1 


12 


9 


7 


3 


Musical 


15 


4 


17 


4 


6 


17 


Play 


17 


3 


18 


3 


NA 


14 


Dance T 


19 


2 


20 


NA 


NA 


10 


Visual Arts 


32 


2 


34 


NA 


NA 


27 



Entries under video refer to the proportion of respondents who used either TV or VCR. 

T Question formats for media and for live attendance arc different The media question includes ballet, modem, folic, 

and tap dance. The live attendance question combines two questions, one referring to ballet only and one to other dance. 



Differences between 1992 and 1982 



Between 1982 and 1992 the major increases in audiences for arts programming through 
broadcast and recording media were in jazz (via television and radio), in classical music and 
in opera (via radio), and in visual arts programs (on television). Significant decrease were 
found in media audiences for musicals (via television and recordings) and for watching plays 
on television. Participation rates for visual arts on television grew by 9 percentage points. 
Total radio audiences increased by 10 percentage points for jazz and by 12 points for classical 
music. Figure Il-a, Il-b and II-c show the participation rates for the three media in 1982, 1985, 
and 1992. Table II.4 in Chapter II presents further details on these data. 



Demographic Correlates of Participation through Broadcast and Recorded 
Media: 1992 and 1982 



The relationships between demographic factors and participation through the media generally 
are the same as those for attendance at live events. Educational level again is the strongest 
predictor of arts participation. Demographic groups that attend live performances and 
exhibitions also are likely to watch and listen to broadcast and recorded presentations. In 
general there are fewer demographic differences in arts participation through the media than 
for participation via live attendance. Figures 14 through 16 in Chapter II illustrate the data. 



Arts Participation Through Television 
1982 to 1992 



Figure Il-a 




Jazz Classical Opera Musicals 

Music 



Plays 



Visual 
Arts 



Arts Participation Through Radio 
1982 to 1992 



Figure Il-b 



o *- 




JL 



WL 



Jazz 



Classical 
Music 



Opera 



Musicals 



Plays 



■ 1982 
□ 1985 
W 1992 



Arts Participation Through Recordings 
1982 to 1992 



Figure II-c 



25 



"5 20 



15 -I 



•i. 10 



z s 





I "I B I 




Jazz 



Classical 
Music 



Opera 



i 




Musicals 



■ 1982 
D 1985 
M 1992 



VI 



III. Participation in the Arts through Personal Performance and 
Creation 



People also can participate in the arts by performing and by creating arts products, as well as 
by taking lessons and classes in various arts activities. Table III shows the percentage of the 
population that reported engaging in the performing arts and in arts and crafts activities in the 
1992 survey. The two sets of columns show personal participation in private and in public 
performances. 



TABLE DI: 1992 PERSONAL ART PARTICIPATION LEVELS 


Type of Participation 


Participation Rate 


Public Performance/Display Rate 


Percent 


Number 
(Millions) 


Percent 


Number 
(Millions) 


Music/Art 
Performances 


Play Jazz 


1.7% 


3.1 


.70% 


1.3 


Play Classical Music 


4.2 


7.8 


.90 


1.7 


Sing Opera 


1.1 


2.0 


.24 


.40 


Sing Musical 


3.8 


7.1 


.73 


1.4 


Sing Choral 


NA 


NA 


6.3 


11.7 


Act 


NA 


NA 


1.6 


3.0 


Ballet 


.2 


.4 


.03 


.10 


Other Dance 


8.1 


15.0 


1.2 


2.2 


Art/Crafts 


Pottery 


8.4 


15.6 


1.7 


3.2 


Needlework 


24.8 


46.1 


2.4 


4.5 


Photography 


11.6 


21.6 


1.7 


3.2 


Painting 


9.6 


17.8 


2.0 


3.7 


Creative Writing 


7.4 


13.7 


.9 


1.7 


Composing 2.1 


3.8 


.7 


1.3 



While the rates of personal participation in the arts are much lower than the rates of 
participation through attendance at live events, millions of American adults do personally 
participate in the arts. Nearly 12 million people sing in public performances by choirs or glee 
clubs; about 46 million people do needlework and 4.5 million people publicly display their 
needlework. About 40 percent of SPPA 1992 respondents said that they had taken music 
lessons at some time during their lives. The proportion who had taken art appreciation 



VII 



instruction was 23 percent, and rates of 16-18 percent were reported for instruction in visual 
arts, dance, creative writing, and music appreciation. 

There are differences in the reported rates of personal participation between 1982 and 1992, 
but the absolute number of responses is small and changes in question format limit 
comparability. A notable decline was found in the rate of personal participation in needlework, 
pottery, and metal/leather activities. There also were notable declines between 1982 and 1992 
in the proportion of respondents who had taken different types of arts lessons or classes at 
some time in their lives. The proportion who had taken music lessons dropped from 47 
percent to 40 percent. The proportion who had taken classes in painting and other visual arts 
declined from 25 percent to 18 percent. The only increase was in the percentage taking art 
appreciation classes, which increased from 20 percent to 23 percent. Detailed data on these 
changes are shown in Table III.2 and Table III. 3 in Chapter III. 

Comparisons of the Different Types of Arts Participation 



There are patterns in the different forms of participation, though the personal performance 
levels are far lower than the attendance levels. For example, for all three types of participation 
the audience for classical music is consistently slightly higher than the jazz audience, which 
in turn is larger than the audience for opera. For all three types of participation, the rates for 
the visual arts - attendance at art museums and painting - are higher than the rates for stage 
performances - opera, musicals, plays, and dance. However, among stage events the rank 
order varies with the type of participation. Chapter IV gives further discussion of these 
differences among types of arts participation. 

Comparisons of Participation in the Arts with Participation in Other Leisure 
Activities 



One gauge of public commitment to the arts is the previously mentioned 41 percent of 
respondents who reported attending any of the seven benchmark live arts activities. In 1992 
this fraction was slightly larger than the 39 percent participation in 1982. Table IV shows the 
reported participation rates in 1982, 1985, and 1992 for attendance at arts events and 
participation in other leisure activities. While the participation rates in exercise, movies, 
gardening, amusement parks, and home improvement activities were higher than the 41% rate 
for the arts, the participation rates for active sports, sports events, outdoor activities, and 
volunteer/charity work were lower. 



VIII 



TABLE IV: PARTICIPATION IN LEISURE ACTIVITIES 


Activity 


1982 


1985 


1992 


Change from 
1982 to 1982 


Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


Arts Participation* 


39% 


39% 


41% 


+2 


Exercise 


51 


57 


60 


+9- 


Movies 


63 


59 


59 


-4 


Gardening 


60 


55 


55 


.5 • 


Amusement Parks 


49 


45 


50 


+ 1 


Home Improvements 


60** 


58** 


48 


NA 


Active Sports 


39 


41 


39 





Sports Events** 


48** 


50** 


37 


NA 


Outdoor Activities 


36 


37 


34 


-2 


Volunteer/Charity 


28 


30 


33 


+5 


TV Hours/Day 


3.0 


2.8 


3.0 


hours 



Defined as attendance at one of the seven benchmark arts activities in Table I 
Questions asked in 1982 and 1985 were different from questions in 1992. 
Statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. 



Attitudes towards the Arts 



About 71 percent of the 1992 SPPA sample expressed an interest in attending more arts 
performances and events. Increased interest was expressed for each of the seven benchmark 
arts activities and was roughly proportional to current attendance at each activity. The interest 
in attending additional events was especially high among those respondents who already had 
attended arts events in the previous year. Respondents also showed increased liking for jazz, 
classical music, opera, and show tune music. 



Summary 



Across the 1982-1992 decade more Americans in general participated in the arts through 
attendance at live events, through broadcast and recorded media, and through personal 
performance and creation. SPPA'92 has documented the following changes in the public's arts 
participation over the decade: 



IX 



In 1 992, 4 1 percent of adults in the United States attended an arts performance 
or exhibition during the previous year, in contrast to 39 percent in 1982 and 
1985. 

The attendance rate at art museums and galleries is up almost 5 percentage 
points since 1982; total attenders approached 50 million for 1992. 

Smaller, not statistically significant increases are found in live attendance at arts/ 
crafts fairs, jazz, and non-musical stage plays. 

Audiences for opera, classical music and jazz programming on radio increased 
by 49, 60, and 71 percent, respectively. 

Almost 12 million American adults sing choral music in a public performance, 
and 15 million are active in modern dance. Listening and watching via the 
broadcast media goes along with increased attendance and personal performance. 

Certain arts activities have not fared as well. Reading literature is down about 
3 percentage points, and visits to historic parks/design sites is down 5 points. 
TV audiences for musicals and plays are down 6-9 percentage points. 

Public interest in increased attendance is up significantly for the seven 
benchmark arts activities, and increases are found in the proportions of the 
public who say they like jazz, classical, opera, and musical/operetta music. 



FOREWORD 



Purpose 



This report summarizes the main findings and trends emerging from data collected from the 
1992 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA'92). The report first presents basic data 
relating to public attendance in 1 1 different types of art performances and events: jazz, classical 
music, opera, musicals, plays (non-musical), ballet, other dance, art museums, arts-crafts fairs, 
and historical parks/design sites. Data used to describe participation in these various art forms 
include demographic factors such as gender, race, age, education, and income. 

In addition to data gathered from a regular schedule of live-attendance questions asked 
throughout the year, questions were asked of all 12,736 respondents about media participation 
in most of the arts activities listed above. Additional questions on arts socialization 
experiences during childhood, on art classes or lessons taken, on music preferences, and on 
other leisure activities were gathered in the second half of 1992. 

These data are available on computer tapes, and copies can be obtained by contacting the 
Research Division, National Endowment for the Arts, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., 
Washington, D.C. 20506. 



History 



As the most comprehensive national survey on arts participation, the SPPA surveys enhance 
our understanding of who participates in which arts activities and how often. SPPA'92 builds 
on the findings from two previous national surveys of arts participation: SPPA' 82 and 
SPPA'85. Unlike other, earlier surveys of public participation in the arts in American life, the 
1 982 SPPA articulated a standard definition of arts participation for particular arts activities 
(e.g., opera and jazz). The SPPA surveys have also examined various modes of arts 
participation: as performer, as audience member at live performances, or as user of the 
broadcast and recorded media. The incompatibility of question wording and of procedures 
employed in data collection across the various studies prior to 1982 limited their use in 
identifying trends in arts participation over time. In addition, unlike prior telephone surveys, 
which overrepresented the more educated and affluent portion of the population when 
compared to personal interviews, SPPA surveys have achieved much higher response rates than 
were obtained in such studies. As a result, the SPPA surveys have provided a more systematic 
and definitive collection of arts participation data: one that can be both generalized to the 
American population with suitable confidence and also replicated regularly to track trends in 
participation. 



XI 



Data Collection 



The SPPA'92 data were collected in household surveys conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the 
Census as part of a larger national panel survey. About three-quarters of these interviews were 
conducted by telephone. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in the respondents' home 
with respondents who could not be interviewed by telephone. Respondents in non-telephone 
households were interviewed in their homes. Each interview took about eight minutes to 
complete during the first six months of 1992 (i.e., January through June), and 16 minutes for 
the second six months. 

Survey participants consisted of a cross-section sample of adult Americans (over age 18). The 
Census Bureau interviewed approximately 1000 respondents per month in 1992, so that arts 
participation data are available for 12,736 respondents. 

Each month's interview began with questions about general attendance at arts performances 
during the previous 12 months. A second set of items examined the extent to which arts 
activities were experienced through the broadcast media. During the second half of the year, 
the interview also included supplementary questions about personal arts participation, 
socialization experiences, music preferences, desires for more arts participation, and 
participation in other types of leisure activities. 

The completed questionnaires were returned to the Census Bureau in Suitland, Maryland, where 
they were edited for final keying onto a computer tape. These coded survey answers were then 
merged with coded data on each respondent's background (e.g., age, education, race) that were 
obtained in the panel part of the Census Bureau survey. These demographic data were then 
weighted to reflect U.S. population characteristics and projected to the total U.S. adult 
population. 

The Census Bureau was selected to conduct these nationwide surveys because of its ability to 
collect standardized data with minimal distortion due to respondent noncooperation or sampling 
bias. Researchers from several arts organizations and universities consulted on the design and 
execution of the study, which were based on results and conclusions from the 1982 and 1985 
SPPA surveys. 



Outline of the Questionnaire 



The SPPA'92 questionnaire for January through June consisted of two types of questions: a 
set of items on annual attendance at live arts events and a set of items that surveyed parallel 
arts participation via the broadcast media of video, radio, and recordings. Appendix A. 1 shows 
the attendance items, which include questions on the extent of annual attendance at arts 
performances and events. Appendix B.l shows the media items. The questionnaire for the 
second six months of the year also included supplementary sets of questions about personal arts 



xu 



participation, arts lessons/classes taken, other leisure activities, interest in attending more 
artsevents, and music preferences. These items are shown respectively in Appendices C-E. 



Survey Methodology 



Respondents in the survey were part of a larger continuously rotating panel of respondents who 
were interviewed every six months over a three year period. These individuals lived in 
households randomly selected by the U.S. Census Bureau to represent the total U.S. adult 
population (18 years old or older). Census Bureau population counts were used to draw the 
sample in such a way that all individuals living in households in the United States had a known 
and equal chance of selection. The sample frame was essentially the same as that used in the 
1982 survey. 

All individuals aged 1 8 and over in these selected households were eligible to be included in 
the survey. Less than 20% of all eligible individuals in these selected households could not 
be interviewed. The final data were weighted slightly to ensure that the final sample was 
completely representative of the 1992 U.S. population in terms of age, race and gender. 



Differences in Questions Asked 



A main advantage of the 1 992 survey is its increased sample size for many of the questions 
asked in the 1982 and 1985 surveys. This sample size advantage applies particularly in the 
case of the questions dealing with the use of the broadcast media for arts programs or content. 
Most of the questions in SPPA'92 were identical to questions asked in the earlier SPPA 
surveys. However, there were also important differences and innovations in the 1992 
questionnaire. While these differences expand our understanding of arts participation, some 
of them limit comparability with the earlier surveys, and questions asked for the first time 
cannot provide trend information. The changes in the questions asked in SPPA'92 are as 
follows: 

ATTENDANCE Inclusion of attending other dance performances 

AT LIVE Asking annual number of attendances 

ACTIVITIES Inclusion of reading books 

Separate question for novels, poems, and plays 

Inclusion of live/recorded poems and novels 

BROADCAST Inclusion of VCR viewings for all benchmark activities 

MEDIA AND Asking annual number of TV/VCR viewings 

RECORDINGS Inclusion of other dance viewings (with ballet question) 



X11I 



PERSONAL Inclusion of composing music, dancing, and owning art 

PARTICIPATION Inclusion of public performance/display of eight new arts forms 

Inclusion of dance lessons besides ballet 
Specific lessons in eight arts forms in the past year 
Exclusion of youth sports in question on sports event attendance 

ATTITUDES Inclusion of interest in attending more dance performances 

Inclusion of ten new types of music in question of liking 



Perhaps the most significant change was the collection of data on estimated numbers of 
attendances in the previous year among those who had attended. This change allows analysis 
of the extent of a respondent's participation and not just whether they may have happened to 
attend one or two performances. 

The innovations also included asking respondents about the number of books read and the 
number of viewings of TV/VCR arts programs. Another media change was the inclusion of 
listening to recordings on CDs as well as records and tapes. 

Other significant changes included new questions on several forms of dance besides ballet, 
such as modern dance, folk dance, and tap dance. These extended questions on dance involved 
not only attendance at live performances, but media viewings, lessons taken, and interest in 
seeing more performances. Two questions were asked concerning live performances, one on 
ballet and one on other dance forms. All the dance forms were combined in one question 
concerning participation through the broadcast and recorded media. 

Certain new arts activities were explored for the first time. These included composing music, 
owning art works, and listening to live readings of poetry and novels, along with taking art 
lessons in the last year and displaying art objects or performing in art events during the past 
year. 



Using the Data in this Report 



These SPPA'92 data can be used as a basis for identifying trends and for making policy- 
relevant assessments of arts-related behavior in the United States. Such assessments include: 
(1) determining if and how attendance is changing; (2) identifying activity patterns among 
different segments of the population; (3) determining factors that seem to stimulate or inhibit 
arts attendance; and (4) identifying the life styles and activity patterns of people who attend 
arts performances and events. 

Because the sample was chosen to be representative of the entire U.S adult population and a 
high response rate was obtained, the results of the survey can be extrapolated to produce rather 
precise projections of the number of adults who participated in each of several arts-related 
activities. For example, the survey was designed to generate population estimates of the 

xiv 



number of people who visited an art museum, who attended an opera, or who listened to 
classical music on the radio. Moreover, because of the size of sample, it is also possible to 
derive useful population estimates of arts attendance rates by particular demographic groups 
(racial groups, age groups such as those 60 or older, etc.). 



Data Tabulations and Projections 



The data presented in this report were generated from a master file tape from the U.S. Bureau 
of the Census. The data were downloaded onto a personal computer for analysis by SPSSPC. 
They are weighted to reflect 1990 Census Bureau data on sex, age and race. , 

The tabulations that are shown are based on respondents for whom a response to each question 
was obtained. In other words, missing responses and "Don't know" responses are excluded. 
For most of the core questions, then amounted to less than 0.5%. For many of the additional 
questions, asked only in the longer questionnaire given in the July-December surveys, missing 
data numbers exceeded 1% and came closer to 1.5% of all respondents. An initial analysis of 
the respondents for whom such missing responses were obtained show them to be slightly 
lower in participation in other arts activities, but not low enough to warrant counting them 
simply as non-participants in the activity in question. 

Thus, our calculations of participation rates in Chapters I-IV exclude respondents from whom 
no participation data were obtained. That means that their participation rates are presumed to 
be the same as the rest of the population. While that may result in slightly inflated estimates 
of participation, it seemed a less arbitrary and misleading step than treating all non-respondents 
as non-participants. Future analysts who prefer to use the latter strategy will therefore obtain 
lower participation rates than reported here. 

The reader will also notice that we have calculated the Chapter I attendance data on the basis 
of three decimal places rather than two decimal places in most of the latter chapters. That is 
because of the larger sample size basis for these questions - both in SPPA '92 and the earlier 
surveys. Third and fourth decimal places are also used in Chapter III in estimating population 
characteristics at or around 1% levels in order to show the magnitude of difference found for 
these rare characteristics. That does not imply these estimates have that degree of precision. 



Organization of the Report 



The report is organized into seven chapters. Chapters I-III describe the results of the survey 
by each of the three forms of arts participation by the respondents, namely: 

Attendance at live arts performances and events, 

Listening and/or watching arts programs through broadcast and recorded media, 
• Personal arts performance or creative arts activity. 



xv 



Each chapter contains statistics of participation for seven benchmark arts activities for which 
identical questions were asked both in 1982 and 1992. These activities are Jazz, Classical 
Music, Opera, Musicals, Plays, Ballet, and Art Museums. The SPPA'92 also included 
questions on dance forms other than ballet, on literature read, and on attendance at arts and 
crafts fairs and historic parks/design sites. Chapter I presents information on participation in 
these activities as well. 

These analyses give particular attention to changes across the decade 1982-1992. Each chapter 
also presents analyses of participation by the respondents' demographic background. These 
factors include each respondent's 

Gender 

Race 

Age 

Education 

Income 



Demographic breakdowns are presented for the various arts activities in Appendices A-E, along 
with comparisons between the 1982 data and the 1992 data on the public's participation in the 
arts activities. 

Chapter IV compares data on the public's arts participation with its participation in other 
leisure activities and compares arts participation through attendance, through media, and 
through personal performance. Chapter V presents data on the public's interest in increased 
arts activity and presents information on music preferences. Chapter VI describes results from 
related 1 992 surveys to show correspondences between the nationwide results and those found 
within 12 diverse communities across the country. Chapter VII presents certain conclusions 
and future steps in the analysis of the data. Appendices contain detailed tabular presentations 
of data and the questionnaires used to collect the data. 



XVI 



CHAPTER I. ATTENDANCE AT LIVE ARTS 

PERFORMANCES/EVENTS 



This chapter describes public participation in the arts by attending live arts performances and 
events. Section A covers general attendance levels for these various arts activities. Section 
B discusses differences in attendance by different demographic groups. Many of the analyses 
focus on the seven arts activities that were asked about identically in 1982 and 1992. For this 
report we have designated these as "benchmark" activities to facilitate references to them. 
These activities include performances of jazz, classical music, opera, musicals, plays, and 
ballet, as well as display events at art museums and galleries. Reading literature is not 
included as a benchmark activity because the question was changed in 1992, and because 
reading does not involve attendance at a specific arts facility. 



A. General Attendance 



This section first presents the 1992 annual attendance rates for various arts activities. The 
average frequencies of attendance are then given and used to produce national estimates of the 
average number of annual attendances for each arts activity. Finally, 1982-1992 trends in 
attendance are shown both in terms of changes in attendance rates and in terms of changes in 
audience sizes. The questionnaire for these attendance items is given in Appendix A.l. 
Related tables of data can be found in Appendices A.2 through A.4. 

About 41% of all SPPA'92 respondents reported having attended, during the previous year, at 
least one of the seven types of live arts activities designated as a benchmark from SPPA'82. 
In tables 1.1 to 1.4 these activities are denoted by a "B". This overall attendance rate at arts 
performances/events was slightly higher than the 1982 and 1985 overall attendance rates, both 
of which were closer to 39%. Table 1.5 presents differences in this attendance rate by 
demographic factors. 



1. 1992 Attendance Levels 



Attendance levels in 14 types of arts activities are arrayed in Table 1.1 in descending order of 
their attendance rates. Column 2 shows the proportion of survey respondents who reported that 
they had attended a performance of that type at least once during the previous year. The third 
column translates these percentages into population estimates for U.S. audiences for each art 
activity. These numbers should be interpreted as representing the total number of American 
adults who attended the respective activity at least once during the previous year; when 
multiplied by frequencies of attendance (Table 1.2), they reflect the total annual number of 
attendances. 



TABLE LI: 1992 ATTENDANCE LEVELS FOR VARIOUS ARTS ACTIVITIES 


Arts Activity 


Attendance Rate 
(Percentage) 


Estimated U.S. Audience* 
(Millions) 


Opera (B) 


3.3 


6.1 


Ballet (B) 


4.7 


8.7 


Reading Plays 


5.9 


. 11.0 


Other Dance 


7.1 


13.2 


Jazz (B) 


10.6 


19.7 


Classical Music (B) 


12.5 


23.2 


Plays (B) 


13.5 


25.1 


Musicals (B) 


17.4 


32.3 


Reading Poetry 


18.4 


34.2 


Art Museums (B) 


26.7 


49.6 


Historic Parks 


34.5 


64.1 


Art/Craft Fairs 


40.7 


75.6 


Reading Novels/Short Stories 


52.1 


96.8 


Reading Literature" 


54.0 


100.3 



Computed by multiplying the attendance rate by the U.S. adult population (185. 8 million). 
(B) Benchmark Activity 
"Literature includes any of play, poems, novels or short stories. 

Attendance at Benchmark Arts Activities: It can be seen that the highest attendance rate 
among the seven benchmark activities was the attendance rate at art museums: 26.7% of the 
SPPA'92 respondents reported that they had visited an art museum or gallery at least once 
during the previous year. The benchmark activities that had the lowest attendance rates were 
ballet and opera: 4.7% and 3.3% respectively. 

Other Arts Activities: SPPA'92 also collected data on several other arts-related activities: 
reading literature in various forms as well as attendance at art/crafts fairs, historical parks, and 
dance performances other than ballet. The highest participation rate out of all of the arts 
activities occurred for reading literature, with 54% of the respondents saying they had read at 
least one novel, short story, poem or play during the previous 12 months. At the bottom of 
Table 1.1 it can be seen that this participation rate translates into more than 100 million adults 
who read one of these forms of literature during the previous year. Among "other" arts 
activities, the lowest attendance rate was in the "other dance" category; with 7.1% of the 
respondents reporting that they had attended a dance performance other than ballet at least once 
during the previous year. 



2. 1992 Frequencies of Attendance 



SPPA'92 respondents also were asked to estimate the number of times they had attended each 
type of arts activity during the previous year. Averages of the responses to these frequency 
questions (i.e., average number of attendances per attender) are shown in the second data 
column in Table 1.2. In the case of jazz, Table 1.2 shows that people who attended jazz 
performances during the previous year did so an average of 2.9 times (people who did not 
attend a jazz performance not included in that average.) 



TABLE L2: 1992 FREQUENCIES OF ATTENDANCE 


Arts Activity* 


Estimated 

U.S. Audience 

(Millions) 


Average Number 

of Attendances 

Per Attender 


Total Number 

of 

Attendances** 

(Millions) 


Jazz (B) 


19.7 


2.9 


57.1 


Classical Music (B) 


23.2 


2.6 


60.3 


Opera (B) 


6.1 


1.7 


10.4 


Musicals (B) 


32.3 


2.3 


74.5 


Plays (B) 


25.1 


2.4 


60.2 


Ballet (B) 


8.7 


1.7 


14.8 


Art Museums (B) 


49.6 


3.3 


163.7 


Other Dance 


13.2 


3.0 


39.6 


Art/Craft Fairs 


75.6 


2.7 


204.1 


Historic Parks 


64.1 


3.8 


243.6 



Activities are listed in their order of appearance on the questionnaire. Literature is not included because the information obtained 
relates to the number of books read. 

"Computed by multiplying the average number of attendances by the size of the respective annual U.S. audience 

(B) Benchmark Activity 



The last column in Table 1.2 shows the estimated total number of annual attendances for each 
art activity. This number is calculated by multiplying the average number of attendances per 
attender by the size of the respective annual audience, as estimated in Table 1.1. For example, 
the 57.1 million annual attendances for jazz was obtained by multiplying 2.9 (average number 
of attendances per attender) by 19.7 million (the estimated size of the annual U.S. adult jazz 
audience). 



The average number of annual attendances in Table 1.2 varies between 1.7 for opera and ballet 
and 3.8 for historic parks; in the latter activity, almost three percent of the sample said they 
visited such locations 10 or more times. 



Note that the rank order of the number of attendances in Table 1.2 differs from the ordering 
by attendance rate and audience size in Table LI. For example, even though the attendance 
rate at historic parks is lower than the attendance rate at arts/crafts fairs, the total number of 
visits to historic parks (243.6 million) is considerably larger than the total number of visits to 
art/craft fairs (204.1 million). The reason for this reversal is that those who attended historic 
parks estimated that they made more visits to such parks (3.8 on average) than those who 
visited art/craft fairs (2.7 visits on average). Similarly, attenders of classical music concerts 
estimated that they attended more of these concerts (2.6 on average) than those who attended 
plays (2.4 on average), leading to more overall attendances at classical music concerts than 
stage plays despite lower attendance levels in the population. 

In this way, a smaller but more active audience for one arts activity can lead to a larger overall 
number of total attendances for that arts activity. Unfortunately, it is not possible to compare 
these volume-of-attendance (see Chapter VII) figures to previous SPPA surveys since these 
frequency data were obtained differently in the earlier surveys. 



3. Trends in Attendance Levels: 1982-92 



Trends in attendance levels between 1982 and 1992 are presented in Table 1.3 and shown 
graphically in Figure 1 . Of the ten activities that could be compared for trends, three showed 
statistically significant changes since 1982: attendance at art museums/galleries increased 
significantly, while attendance at historic sites and the reading of literature decreased 
significantly. The 2.9 percentage point decline in the rate of literature reading is the largest 
decrease in Table 1.3. The biggest overall change was the 4.6 percentage point increase in the 
proportion of people who had visited an art museum. 



TABLE L3: 1992-82 DIFFERENCES IN ATTENDANCE RATES 


Arts Activity 


Percentage Attending 


Difference 




1982 

(n= 17,254) 


1985 

(n=l 3,675) 


1992 

(n=l 2,736) 


Change from 
1982 to 1992 


Jazz(B) 


9.6 


9.5 


10.6 


+1.0 


Classical Music (B) 


13.0 


12.7 


12.5 


-0.5 


Opera (B) 


3.0 


2.6 


3J 


+0.3 


Musicals (B) 


18.6 


16.6 


17.4 


-1.2 


Plays (B) 


11.9 


11.6 


13.5 


+ 1.6 


Ballet (B) 


4.2 


4.3 


4.7 


+0.5 


Art Museums (B) 


22.1 


21.9 


26.7 


+4.6** 


Other Dance 


NA 


NA 


7.1 


NA 


Art/Craft Fairs 


39.0 


40.0 


40.7 


+1.7 


Historic Park 


37.0 


36.0 


34.5 


-2.5** 


Reading Literature* 


56.9 


56.1 


54.0 


-2.9* • 



Care should be taken in comparing these percentages because a new question format was used in 1992. In 1992 separate questions were 
asked about reading plays, poetry, or novels and short stories. A positive response to any of these questions was interpreted as 'reading 
literature." In 1982 only one question was asked about all four types of literature. Also note that comparisons cannot be made across the 
different types of literature because separate questions were not asked in the 1982 and 198S SPPA surveys. 

"Statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. (Significance test calculations are shown in Appendix G) 

(B) Benchmark Activity 

NA Data not available 



Though not statistically significant, attendance at plays increased by 1.6 percentage points. 
This increase was to some extent offset by the decline (not statistically significant) of 1.2 
percentage points in attendance at musical stage plays. Thus, the sum of the percentages for 
musicals and plays (i.e., both types of theater) changed little over the time period. 

There was no statistically significant change in the proportions of people who attended jazz, 
classical music, opera and ballet performances. Comparisons of the SPPA'92 data with the 
SPPA' 8 5 data indicate similar conclusions and trends. 



These changes can be seen more clearly in Figure 1, which displays the Table 1.3 data for the 
benchmark activities in bar chart form. As can be seen in the chart, the biggest change was 
in the attendance at art museums, which increased from 22.1% in 1982 to 26.7% in 1992. 



30 



25 

■1 20 
c 

o> 

5 15 



Q_ 



o +J 



GENERAL ATTENDANCE RATES 

FOR BENCHMARK ARTS ACTIVITIES: 

1982 to 1992 




W 1982 
□ 1985 
■ 1992 



Opera Ballet 



Jazz Classical Plays Musicals Art 

Music Museum 



Figure J 

Another perspective on these changes comes from examining the total population reach of these 
arts activities across the decade. Table 1.4 shows changes in the estimated total number of 
adults who attended arts performances in the previous year. 

Since the adult population across the decade increased by 21.8 million people (from 164 
million people in 1982 to 185.8 million people in 1992), it is possible for some arts audiences 
to have actually increased in spite of stable or even declining attendance proportions. Thus, 
if 10% attended a given type of arts event both in 1982 and in 1992, the number of attenders 
would have increased from 16.4 million to 18.58 million. In the case of attendance at classical 
music performances, Table 1.4 shows a rise of 9% in population terms - despite the 0.5 
percentage point decline in the attendance rate given in Table II.3. 

As shown in the last column of Table 1.4, attendance at every type of arts event increased in 
population terms between 1982 and 1992. Attendance at art museums showed the largest 
proportionate increase: 36.2 million people in 1982 compared to 49.6 million people in 1992 - 
or an increase of 37%. The increase for opera was almost as large - from 4.5 million in 1982 
to 6.1 million in 1992, an increase of more than 35%. In contrast, musicals and classical music 
attendance increased by less than 10%. The number of visitors to historic parks showed the 
smallest increase: 5.8%. 



TABLE 1.4: 1992-82 DIFFERENCES IN TOTAL NUMBERS OF 

ATTENDERS 


Art Form 


Number Attending 
(Millions) 


Percentage 
Change * 


_. 


1982 


1992 


1982-92 


Reading Literature 


93.3 


100.3 


+7.3 


Art/Craft Fairs 


63.9 


75.6 


+ 18.3 


Historic Parks 


60.6 


64.1 


+5.8 


Art Museums (B) 


36.2 


49.6 


+37.0 


Musicals (B) 


30.5 


32.3 


+5.9 


Plays (B) 


19.5 


25.1 


+28.7 


Classical Music (B) 


21.3 


232 


+8.9 


Jazz (B) 


15.7 


19.7 


+25.5 


Other Dance 


NA 


13.2 


+NA 


Ballet (B) 


6.9 


8.7 


+26.1 


Opera (B) 


4.5 


6.1 


+35.6 



(B) Benchmark Activity 

The adult population increased from 164 million in 1982 to 185.8 million in 1992. an increase of 13.3%. Increases 
below 13.3% indicate less audience growth than population growth across the decade 



B. Demographic Differences in Attendance Levels 



Variations in attendance rates by five demographic variables (gender, race, age, education, and 
income) were examined to identify the major predictors of attendance at live performances/ 
events. Pronounced differences in the attendance rates at arts activities were found among 
different demographic groups of the population. 

As was the case in the 1982 and 1985 SPPA data, education clearly emerged as the strongest 
demographic predictor of arts attendance rates (either considered independently or after 
statistical adjustment for the other demographic variables). While income was also an 
important predictor, its predictive power was weakened considerably when education and other 
demographic factors were taken into account via statistical control. The main exception was 
the notable higher attendance rate of the highest income group. 

In examining overlapping arts audiences, certain pairings of arts attendances showed more 
overlap than others: for example, opera and classical music. However, detailed analysis 
revealed a general common pattern of high correlations across each of the eleven arts activities. 



In other words, the data did not reveal distinct clusters of arts attendance that would suggest 
that audiences for music, theater, dance or the visual arts were considerably different from one 
another. 



1. Attendance Characteristics: 

The segmentation of the public attending the benchmark arts events followed a fairly regular 
pattern. Thus, attendance at live arts events was: 

Mainly related to a person's socioeconomic background, particularly in terms of 
education, but also in terms of income; 

• Higher among women than among men ; 

Higher among middle-aged and younger adults than among older people; 

Higher among white respondents than among blacks or other racial groups. 

Many of the demographic differences disappear when the results are controlled for educational 
level and gender, which are the most important predictors of arts participation. 

Table 1.5 shows how the proportion (41%) of sample respondents who reported that they had 
attended at least one of the seven benchmark art activities during the previous year varies by 
demographic group. In the second column, the percentages are shown before being statistically 
adjusted for the other five demographic factors. The third column presents the percentages 
after the adjustments have been made. These numbers can be compared with 41%, the grand 
mean for the entire sample. 

The statistical adjustment procedure is called Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) 
[Andrews, et. al, 1973] and helps to separate the statistical effects of many variables that relate 
to a "dependent" variable of interest (here arts attendance). For example, if higher arts 
participation is found both among people with higher education and among people with higher 
income, MCA determines whether the education differences are due to income or the income 
differences are due to education. In effect, MCA acts to "make other things equal" in 
determining which are the most effective predictors of participation. 



TABLE 1.5: 1992 ATTENDANCE RATES FOR ANY BENCHMARK ART ACTIVITY BY DEMOGRAPHIC 

GROUP 


Demographic Group 


Before Statistical 
Adjustment 


After Statistical 
Adjustment 


Differences from Overall 
Sample Rate of 41% (CoL 2) 


Overall Sample 


41% 


41% 


(0%) 1 


Gender 


Male 


40 


38 


-3 


Female 


42 


43 


+2 


Race 


White 


42 


41 





Black 


35 


41 





Other 


37 


32 


-9 


Age 


18-24 


42 


44 


+3 


25-34 


43 


40 


-1 


35-44 


44 


39 


-2 


45-54 


45 


41 





55-64 


40 


43 


+2 


65-74 


37 


45 


+4 


75-96 


20 


35 


-6 


Education 


Grade School 


8 


13 


-28 


Some High School 


15 


18 


-23 


High School Graduate 


30 


31 


-10 


Some College 


52 


51 


+ 10 


College Graduate 


66 


64 


-23 


Graduate School 


77 


73 


+32 


Income 


Under $5,000 


23 


32 


-9 


$5,000-9,999 


23 


34 


-7 


$10,000-14,999 


22 


31 


-10 


$15,000-24,999 


36 


39 


-2 


$25,000-49,999 


44 


42 


+ 1 


$50,000 + 


65 


53 


+ 12 


Not Ascertained 


41 


40 


-1 



Before MCA adjustment, it can be seen that women (42%) were slightly more likely to attend 
a benchmark activity than were men (40%). Whites (42%) were more likely to attend one of 
these art forms than were either blacks (35%) or other races (37%). The attendance rate for 
benchmark activities remained rather constant across age groups until retirement years. The 
attendance rate drops to 37% for those aged 65-74 and to 20% for those aged 75 and older. 
Major and steady increases can be seen across education groups, with only an 8% attendance 
rate among those with a grade school education compared to a 77% attendance rate among 
those with a graduate degree. In the same way, low income groups show relatively lower 
attendance rates than high income groups: less than 23% for those with less than $5000 annual 
income compared to 65% among those with $50,000 or more annual income. 

In the second data column of Table 1.5, it can be seen that, after MCA adjustment, women's 
already slightly higher attendance rate increased somewhat, from 2 points higher to 5 points 
higher than the attendance rate of men. Racial differences between blacks and whites became 
smaller (from 7 points to points) after adjustment; however, the attendance rate of other races 
was notably lower after adjustment. The 21 point lower attendance rate among people older 
than 74 is almost entirely "explained" by the other factors (especially education); after MCA 
adjustment, the 18-24 and 65-74 year old age groups have the highest attendance rate (44- 
45%). Education differences were also reduced, from 69 points (77% vs. 8%) to 60 points 
(73% vs. 13%). Income differences decreased from 42 points to 20 points when adjusted by 
MCA for the other factors (particularly education). 

In other words, MCA indicates that education is by far the most significant predictor of 
attendance at live arts performances and events, followed by income differences (mainly 
produced by those at the top of the income scale). Suburban residents and women attend arts 
events at higher-than-average rates, while other races attend at lower-than-average rates given 
their socioeconomic status. Age differences are particularly interesting because the above 
average rate of attendance for those aged 25-44 becomes below average after taking the other 
demographic factors into account. 

These demographic patterns characterize most art forms, as will be seen in the analyses to 
follow. Data for these analyses are given in Appendix A.2. 



Audience Demographics for the Benchmark Arts Activities 



This section describes the 1992 audience for each art form by demographic groups. Figures 
2 through 8 illustrate the data. These data are not adjusted by MCA. The demographic 
variables used include gender, race, age, education, and income. In general, the patterns 
described are quite similar to those found in the 1982 data, which are shown in Appendix A. 3. 
The demographic background data for all arts activities (benchmark as well as other activities) 
are shown in Appendix A. 



10 



1992 Attendance at Jazz Performances 




Gender 

Male 
Female 



Race 

White 
Black 
Other 



□ 



Age 
(Years) 

18-24 
25-34 
35-44 
45- 54 
55-64 
65 - 74 
75 + 



Education 
(Years! 

0-8 

9 - 11 

12 

13 - 15 

16 

16 + 



Income 
($000s) 

o- 5 
6 - 10 
11-15 
16-25 
26 - 50 
50 + 
NA 



□ 



Figure 2 



Gender: 



Race: 



Age: 



Education: 



Income: 



Jazz was the only arts activity in which men were slightly more likely than women to attend live 
performances. 

Jazz was the only arts activity in which blacks had the highest level of attendance. Blacks were 
most likely to attend jazz performances while people of other races had the lowest attendance rate. 

In contrast to the other arts activities, attendance rates decline steadily as age increases, with the 18- 
24 year old age group being twice as likely to attend jazz performances as those over 64. 

Attendance at jazz performances increases steadily as education increases, with two noticeable 
jumps. The attendance rate of respondents who had some college was more than three times as high 
as the attendance rate of respondents who had only graduated from high school. There was also a 
noticeable jump in attendance rates between respondents who had some college and respondents who 
had graduated from college. 

Attendance rates by income group showed noticeable changes occurring for two groups. The 
attendance rate more than doubled between the $10,000-14,999 and $15,000-24,999 income groups 
and there was a large jump between the next to the highest and the highest income groups. 



11 



1992 Attendance at Classical Music Performances 






Gender 




Race 


i 


^ge 


Education 


Income 










(Years) 


(Years) 


($000s) 


□ 


Male 


□ 


White 


m 


18 - 24 


□ 


0-8 


n 


0- 5 


■ 


Female 


■ 


Black 


m 


25- 34 


■ 


9- 11 


■ 


6- 10 






s 


Other 


n 


35- 44 




12 


sc 


11 - 15 








i 


■ 


45- 54 


Ha 


13 - 15 


■ 


16-25 










in 


55- 64 
65-74 


Di 


16 
16 + 


II 


26- 50 

50 + 










□ 


75 + 






□ 


NA 



Figure 3 



Gender: 
Race: 

Age: 

Education: 



Income: 



Women were about 20% more likely to attend classical music performances than men were. 

The attendance rates of whites and other racial groups at classical music concerts were nearly double 
the rates of blacks. 

Attendance rates by age steadily increased with age in the early years, until peaking at the 45-54 
year old age group and declining slightly for older age groups. 

Differences in attendance rates by education were quite large. The attendance rate of those who had 
a high school diploma was less than half that of those who had some college education. Differences 
both between those with some college and those with a college degree and between those with a 
college degree and those with graduate school each exceeded 10 percentage points. 

Notable differences in attendances rates for different income groups were found between those who 
made less than $15,000 and those who made between $15,000 and $50,000. The attendance rate of 
those who made more than $50,000 was more than twice the attendance rate of those in the $25,000- 
50,000. 



12 



1992 Attendance at Opera Performances 



c 

QJ 



12 



10 



2 8 



o 

a. 



3 



C 

a> 
<_> 

a> 

Q_ 



2 ■ 




Gender 

I I Male 

Female 



Race 

I I White 
H Black 
HI Other 



Age 
(Years) 

□ 18-24 
25-34 

35 - 44 
45- 54 
55 - 64 
65- 74 



Education 
(Years) 



□ 



0- 8 
9-11 

12 

13 - 15 
16 
16 + 



Income 
($000s) 



□ 



□ 75 



□ 



0- 5 
6- 10 

11-15 
16-25 
26 - 50 
50 + 
NA 



Gender: 

Race: 

Age: 

Education: 



Income: 



Figure 4 

Women were slightly more likely to attend opera than were men. 

The attendance rate of blacks at opera concerts was only half the rates of whites and other races. 

Attendance by age peaks at the 45-54 year old age group, after a progressive increase in attendance 
rates among younger age groups, and shows a significant drop off after age 74. 

A distinctive aspect of opera attendance was the higher attendance rate of those with graduate school 
education, being considerably higher than in any other demographic category and nearly double that 
for college graduates, the next closest attendance rate of any education group. 

Opera attendance increased steadily with income, being almost four times as high among those with 
more than $50,000 income as among those with less than $10,000 income. 



13 



1992 Attendance at Musicals 




□ 



Gender 

Male 
Female 



□ 



Race 

White 
Black 
Other 



□ 



□ 



Age 


Education 


(Years) 


(Years) 


18-24 


□ 


- 8 


25-34 


■ 


9 - 11 


35 - 44 


n 


12 


45-54 


■ 


13 - 15 


55 - 64 


n 


16 


65 - 74 


n 


16 + 


75 + 







Income 
($000s) 



□ 



0-5 

6- 10 
11 - 15 
16-25 
26 - 50 
50 + 
NA 



Figure 5 



Gender: 



The 5 point higher attendance rate for female than male respondents in attending musicals was larger 
than that found for other arts activities. 



Race: 



Although the" attendance rate of blacks was lower than the attendance rate for whites, it was higher 
than the attendance rate for other races, a 'pattern unlike that found in most of the other arts 
activities. 



Age: 



Education: 



Income: 



The attendance rates by age again peaked at the 45-54 year old age group and then declined steadily 
for older age groups. 

Differences in attendance rates by educational level were quite large. The rate nearly tripled 
between those who had some high school and those who had graduated from high school and tripled 
again for those with graduate degrees. 

The attendance rate nearly doubled between adjacent income groups in two comparisons: between 
those who made less than $15,000 per year and those who made between $15,000 and $50,000 per 
year, and between those who made $15,000-50,000 per year and those who made more than $50,000 
per year. 



14 



1992 Attendance at Plays 




Gender 



Race 



□ 


Male 


□ 


White 


■ 


Female 


■ 


Black 
Other 



Age 
(Years) 

(Z 1 8 - 24 
■ 25-34 

^ 35-44 

B 45-54 

Dl 55-64 

^ 65-74 

□ 75 + 



Education 
(Years) 



n 



- 8 
9- 11 

12 

13 - 15 
16 
16 + 



Income 
($000s) 



□ 



□ 



0- 5 
6- 10 

11 - 15 
16-25 
26 - 50 
50 + 
NA 



Figure 6 



Gender: 
Race: 

Age: 

Education: 



Income: 



The attendance rate of females at plays was about 20% higher than the attendance rate of males. 

The attendance rate of blacks at plays was slightly lower than the attendance rate of whites and 
significantly higher than the attendance rate of other races. 

The 45-54 year old age group again showed a higher attendance rate than either younger or older 
age groups. 

Differences in attendance rates across education groups were quite large, with three of the 
differences across categories larger than 8 percentage points. Those with graduate school education 
reported attendance rates over 5 times as high as those reported by high school graduates. 

Differences in attendance rates by income appeared mainly among those who made over $50,000. 



15 



1992 Attendance at Ballet Performances 




□ 



Gender 



Male 
Female 



□ 



Race 



White 
Black 
Other 



Age 
(Years) 



□ 



18-24 
25-34 

35 - 44 
45 - 54 
55 - 64 
65 - 74 
75 + 



Education 
(Years) 



D 



- 8 

9- 11 

12 

13 - 15 

16 

16 + 



Income 
($000s) 



□ 



0-5 
6- 10 
11-15 

16-25 
26- 50 
50 + 
NA 



Figure 7 



Gender: 



The attendance rate of females at ballet performances was almost 70% higher than the attendance 
rate of males. 



Race: 



Age: 



Education: 



Income: 



The attendance rate of blacks was less than half the attendance rate either of whites or of other races, 
with other races having a higher attendance rate than whites. 

The attendance rates by age differed from other art forms in that it was relatively constant across 
age groups, until age 75, when it drops sharply.. 

Attendance rates by education groups showed significant differences, particularly between those who 
were high school graduates and those with some college, and between those who had some college 
and those who were college graduates. 

The pattern of attendance by income was not as clear as it was for the other arts activities, with one 
noticeable difference between those who made more than $50,000 per year and lower income groups. 



16 



1992 Attendance at Art Museums 




Gender 



Race 



a 


Male 


□ 


White 


■ 


Female 


■ 


Black 
Other 



Age 
(Years) 



□ 



18 - 24 
25- 34 



M 35-44 

fj§ 45-54 

| 55-64 

1 65-74 



a 75 



Education 
(Years) 



□ 



0- 8 
9- 11 



12 

13 - 15 
16 
16 + 



Income 
($000s) 



□ 



1 



□ 



0- 5 

6 - 10 
11-15 
16-25 
26 - 50 
50 + 
NA 



Figure 8 



Gender: 



Race: 



Age: 



Education: 



Income: 



Unlike most of the other arts activities, there was almost no difference in the attendance rate between 
males and females. 

There were noticeable differences in attendance by race, with the other races having the highest 
attendance rate and blacks having the lowest attendance rate. 

Unlike the "peak pattenr observed in most of the other art activities, fairly constant attendance rates 
were observed for those between 18 and 54, falling off somewhat among those over age 54. 

Differences in attendance by education were again quite large, particularly for those with less than 
a high school diploma. Their attendance rate was less than a tenth the attendance rate of those with 
a graduate school education. 

Differences between those who made less than $15,000 and those who made between $15,000 and 
$50,000 were quite large, approaching a factor of 2. Those who earned more than $50,000 also 
exhibited significantly higher attendance rates. 



17 



1992 Participation in Literature Reading 




Gender 

[~1 Male 

Female 



Race 

[~l White 
■ Black 
P^ Other 



Age 
(Years) 



n 



D 



18-24 
25-34 

35-44 
45- 54 
55-64 
65-74 
75 + 



Education 
(Years) 

m 



0- 8 

9- 11 

12 

13 - 15 

16 

16 + 



Income 
(sonnet 




m 


0- 


5 


m 


6- 


10 


sss 


11 


- 15 


Bl 


16- 


25 


ID 


26 


- 50 


H 


50 


+ 


u 


NA 





Figure 9 



Gender: 

Race: 

Age: 

Education: 
Income: 



Women were about 25% more likely than men to have read a novel, short story, poem, or play in 
the previous year. 

Whites were more likely than blacks to have read literature; blacks, in turn, were more likely to have 
read literature than other racial groups. 

Reading literature increases slightly with age until ages 35-44, and declines somewhat for older age 
groups. 

Reading literature increases steadily with each increased level of educational attainment. 

Reading literature increases with each increased level of income, but not as notably as with increased 
levels of education. 



18 



3. Trends in Arts Attendance by Demographic Factors: 1982-92 



Attendance rates by demographic factors for the 1992 and 1982 data are presented in 
Appendices A. 2 and A.3, respectively. The differentials in 1982-92 attendance rates by 
different demographic groups are calculated in Appendix A.4. Only in rare instances did these 
differentials exceed 10 percentage points; in most cases, they were less than 3 percentage 
points. Moreover, many of the larger differences did not seem part of any larger overall trend. 

The changes in attendance rate by gender and race are shown graphically in Figures 10 and 11. 
The changes in attendance rate by age, education, and income involve too many categories to 
present graphically. Data from Appendix A-4 for these factors are reproduced here as Tables 
1.6, 1.7 and 1.8. 



Differences in Attendance Rates by Gender 
1982 to 1992 



oo 6 

CO 

CJ A 



O 

a> 
Oil 

CO 

« -2 \ 



:m 



o 



-4 







-1 



-2 




■ Male 
LJ Female 



Jazz Classical Opera Musicals Plays 
Music 



Ballet Art 

Museums 



Figure 10 



In the case of gender, the 1982-92 changes for men and women were not much different except 
for the slightly greater increase in jazz and art museum attendance by men. 



19 



Differences in Attendance Rates by Race 
1982 to 1992 



10 




-2 -2 



7 7 



□ White 
■ Black 
M Other 



Jazz Classical Opera Musicals Plays 
Music 



Ballet Art 

Museums 



Figure 11 

As Figure 11 shows, the changes in attendance over the 1982-1992 decade were greater for 
blacks and other races than the changes for whites. Increases for blacks were largest for 
attending museums, plays, and musicals. Respondents of other races showed increases in 
attending museums, jazz, and classical music performances. 



20 



TABLE L6: 1982-1992 CHANGES IN ATTENDANCE RATES BY EDUCATION 




Percentage Point Change 


Education 


Jazz 


Classical 
Music 


Opera 


Musicals 


Plays 


Ballet 


Art 
Museums 


Grade School 


+ 1 








-1 








+1 


Some High School 


-2 


-1 





-1 





+ 1 





High School Graduate 


-1 


-1 


-1 


-2 


+ 1 








Some College 


-1 


-4 


-I 


-5 


-1 





+2 


College Graduate 


+ 1 


-6 


-1 


-8 


-3 


-1 


+2 


Graduate School 


+5 


-3 


+2 


-8 


-1 


-2 


+4 



Both the differences by education and income are interesting because they generally show more 
negative than positive differentials. These differentials indicate attendance rates that are 
generally below those of their counterparts with equivalent levels of education and income in 
the 1982 study. In the case of education, this shows up for the slightly greater than average 
declines among the college educated for attending classical concerts, musicals and plays. In 
contrast, their attendance at jazz performances shows slightly more gain than less educated 
groups in the 1992 sample. Overall, these negative entries in Table 1.6 suggest that attendance 
did not increase as much as the increases in levels of education between 1982 and 1992 would 
have led one to expect. That is, rather than a small increase or no change in arts attendance, 
one should have expected more of an increase based on the generally higher level of education 
in the 1992 public. 



TABLE 1.7: 1982-1992 CHANGES IN ATTENDANCE RATES BY INCOME 


Income 


Percentage Point Change 


Jazz 


Classical 
Music 


Opera 


Musicals 


Plays 


Ballet 


Art 
Museums 


Under $5,000 


-2 


-4 


+ 1 


-2 





-1 





$5,000 - 9,999 


-3 


-3 





-2 





+ 1 


+ 1 


$10,000 - 14,999 


-3 


-4 





-6 


+ 1 


-2 


-6 


$15,000 - 24,999 





-1 





-3 


+ 1 


-1 


+3 


$25,000 - 49,999 





-6 


+2 


-10 


+5 


-2 


+2 


$50,000 + 


+ 1 


-8 


+2 


-10 


-10 


-1 


+3 


Not Ascertained 


+ 1 








-1 


+4 





+5 



The prevalence of negative numbers in Table 1.7 is even greater for the factor of income than 
for education, to some extent reflecting the effects of inflation on earnings (and arts ticket 



21 



prices) over the decade. In the case of attending performances of classical music, musicals, and 
plays, that is particularly true for higher income groups since one can see larger negative 
numbers for those earning more than $25,000 than for those in lower income groups. The 
higher declines for attending classical music, musicals, and plays among respondents in these 
top two income groups suggests a greater than average fall off in their levels of arts 
participation. However, these analyses by income need to be adjusted using comparable 
income categories across the decade, a difficult task given that the surveys used income 
categories which are difficult to make equivalent over time. 



TABLE 1.8: 1982 CHANGES IN ATTENDANCE RATES BY AGE GROUP 


Age Group 


Percentage Point Change 


Jazz 


Classical 
Music 


Opera 


Musicals 


Plays 


Ballet 


Art 
Museums 


18 -24 


-6 


-1 


+2 


-1 


+3 


+ 1 


+6 


25 - 34 


-1 


-3 





-4 








+3 


35-44 


+5 


-4 





-5 


-2 


-1 


+3 


45 - 54 


+4 


+2 





+ 1 


+4 


+ 1 


+7 


55 - 64 


+3 


+3 


+1 





+4 


+ 1 


+5 


65 - 74 


+5 


+2 


+1 


+2 


+2 


+ 1 


+6 


75 - 96 


+ 1 


-1 








+ 1 





+2 



Most of the negative entries in Table 1.8 are in the age categories below age 45. That suggests 
an important trend toward slightly lower participation in these younger age groups. Two points 
need to be made about these differentials. First, they are not large and most are not statistically 
significant. Second, they are often offset by gains in other arts activities. Thus, while 18-24 
year olds do report declines (compared to their 1982 counterparts) in attending jazz 
performances and in reading literature (relative to older population groups), they also report 
above average increases in attending plays and art museums. Similarly, those aged 35-44 (the 
first and oldest "baby-boom" cohort) reported above average gains in attending jazz 
performances and a lower than average decrease in reading literature that offset their above 
average declines in attending performances of classical music and musicals. 

Thus, these data provide some support for the contention that the "baby-boom generation" is 
declining in their levels of arts participation relative to older or younger age groups. It is true 
that the 25-34 age group does show trends that are below average for many arts activities. But 
these differences rarely amount to more than a few percentage points, and they are not 
supported unequivocally by trends in the age cohorts immediately preceding or following them. 
Moreover, it is not clear whether one should be as impressed by the declines in these younger 
age groups as by the increases in the older age groups - particularly for those aged 65-74. This 
group reports a 3 point increase in reading literature, as well as increases in attending jazz, 
classical and musical performances that are above the national norm. Perhaps it is in contrast 
to this active group of recent retirees that the trends in arts participation by baby-boomers seem 



22 



somewhat less active. (Unfortunately, with the lack of data on work hours in the study, it is 
not possibly to examine whether this may have played a role in the lower gains by baby- 
boomers or other younger adults.) A more detailed analysis of these age differences from a 
cohort perspective follows. 

Cohort Analysis: An alternative way to examine these age comes from a "cohort analysis" of 
the data in Appendix Tables A.2 and A. 3. In the cohort perspective, one compares age groups 
according to the year in which the respondents were born rather than according to their 
chronological age. Thus we compare the 25-34 year old age group in 1982 with the 35-44 
year old age group in 1992: in other words, with the same cohort of people who had aged 10 
years across the period between the two studies. 

Of particular interest in such a cohort analysis is the behavior of the "baby-boom" generation 
born after World War II. This group shares several interesting characteristics: they are 
numerically larger than other age cohorts, they are the first generation raised during the 
television era, and they are currently in the busiest child-rearing and career stage of their life 
cycle. For these reasons, they are seen as an important demographic segment for arts 
participation. Concern has been raised that their lower arts participation may foretell a larger 
decline in arts participation generally. In Table 1.9 we have used the age group 25-44 to 
represent this cohort, given the age categories available for analysis. It should be noted that 
in 1982, some of the baby-boomers, as defined by these age categories, were 15-17 years old 
and, therefore, were not included in the 1982 SPPA. 



TABLE 1.9: 1982-1992 COHORT DIFFERENCES IN ARTS ATTENDANCE TRENDS 

(Percentage Point Change) 


Cohort 

Year Bom 

(Age in 1993) 


Jazz 


Classical 
Music 


Opera 


Musicals 


Plays 


i 
Ballet 


Art 
Museum 


Rerding 
Literature 


Post Baby-Boomers 
1968-1974 (18-24) 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


Baby-Boomers 
1948-1967 (25-44) 


-3 


-2 


+ 1 


-1 


+2 





+5 


-4 


Depression Era 
1928-1947 (45-64) 


+ 1 





+ 1 


-1 


+2 





+2 


-2 


Pre-Depression 
1927 and Earlier 
(65 and older) 


+ 1 


-1 





-3 








-1 


-3 



With respect to baby-boomers in Table 1.9, one finds a greater than average decline in jazz 
attendance between 1982 and 1992: a 3 percentage point decline in contrast to a 1 percentage 
point increase among older cohorts. Baby-boomers also showed a slightly higher decline in 
attending classical music performances and reading literature than older cohorts. These 
declines by baby-boomers are offset by the 5 percentage point increase in the number of visits 



23 



to art museums. The distinctive arts participation trends in Table 1.9 among baby-boomers are 
less in terms of overall declines than in terms of the trade-offs they have made - from reading 
literature and attending jazz and classical musical performances to attending art museums/ 
galleries. 

Another interesting cohort in Table 1.9 are those in the latter years of retirement, the 65+ age 
group. This cohort shows virtually no change (relative to the younger groups) in their levels 
of arts participation as they have grown older, except for a slightly higher than average decline 
in attending musicals. More detailed examination of the cohort data, however, reveals that this 
lack of change is due to offsetting influences of somewhat increased participation by those 
currently aged 65-74 and somewhat decreased participation by the cohort currently aged 75 and 
older. At the same time, Table 1.8 shows no decline in participation by those aged 75 and 
older in 1992 compared to their 1982 counterparts. 

Further analyses of the age difference data may be performed as part of the research topics 
described in Chapter VII. 



24 



CHAPTER II. ARTS PARTICIPATION THROUGH BROAD- 
CAST AND RECORDED MEDIA 



This chapter describes the audiences for arts programming through both broadcast and recorded 
media. Section A discusses the size of the general media audiences and Section B 
characterizes differences in the usage of these media for arts content by demographic group. 
The questionnaire items are shown in Appendix B.l. 

The 1982-92 decade saw many technilogical developments in broadcast and recorded media 
that enhanced their quality and the variety of programming available. In addition to improved 
loud speakers and sound technology, broadcast reception was improved by means of digital 
technology. The development of compact disks also improved the quality of audio recordings. 
Increased access to cable TV opened more opportunities for viewing arts programs on 
television. Perhaps most significantly, the increased use of videocassette recorders (VCRs) 
meant greater opportunity for repeated or extended viewings of arts programs that could be 
played almost anytime the viewer wanted. 

In response to this changing media environment, several new media questions were asked of 
respondents in the 1992 SPPA and some of the questions used in previous SPPA surveys were 
modified. The SPPA'92 survey contained additional questions about the viewings of arts 
activities on VCR, and it also asked respondents about the number of viewings of arts activities 
on VCR and television. In SPPA'92, the definition of dance used with the media items was 
also expanded to include not only ballet but also modern, folk, or tap dance. These differences 
between SPPA'92 and the earlier SPPA questions should be kept in mind when making 
comparisons between the results of the different surveys. 



A. General Usage of Broadcast and Recorded Media Arts 
Programming 



This section describes the public's involvement through media in various art activities. The 
public's 1992 levels of usage of these media for arts programs is presented, along with an 
analysis of how the levels have changed since 1982. These media use levels are also compared 
with levels of attendance at live performances. Finally, data on the number of video viewings 
of arts programs are presented. 



25 



1. 1992 Arts Participation Levels Via Broadcast and Recorded Media 



The rates of participation in the arts via broadcast and recorded media are shown in Table II. 1. 
For example, 22% of those surveyed reported watching a jazz performance on TV or VCR in 
the previous year, 28% reported listening to jazz on the radio, and 21% listened to a jazz 
recording. The second row in Table II. 1 shows that 26% of the respondents reported watching 
classical music performances on video, 31% reported listening to classical music on the radio, 
and 24% listened to a classical music recording. These numbers indicate rather similar media 
audience sizes for the two types of music. The last column in Table II. 1, taken from Chapter 
I, shows the comparable rates of attendance at live performances or exhibitions. 



TABLE IL1: 1992 RATES OF ARTS PARTICIPATION 
VIA BROADCAST AND RECORDED MEDIA 


Art Form 


TV 


VCR 


Either 
TV or 
VCR* 


Radio 


Recording 


Attendance 

at Live 
Performances 


Jazz 


21% 


4% 


22% 


28% 


21% 


11% 


Classical 
Music 


25 


4 


26 


31 


24 


13 


Opera 


12 


1 


12 


9 


7 


3 


Musical 


15 


4 


17 


4 


6 


17 


Play 


17 




18 


*> 

3 


NA 


14 


Dance" 


19 


2 


20 


NA 


NA 


10 


Visual Arts 


32 


2 


34 


NA 


NA 


27 



Entries refer to the proportion of respondents who used either TV or VCR. 

Question formats for media and for live attendance are different. The media question includes ballet, modern, folk, and tap dance. 
The live attendance question combines two questions, one referring to ballet only and one to other dance. 



Arts audiences reached by the broadcast and recorded media are, for most art forms, larger than 
the respective audiences who attend live performances. This is especially true for audiences 
reached by TV and VCR for jazz, classical music, and opera. The audience reach of TV is 
greatest in absolute terms for the visual arts (32%) and lowest for opera (12%) and musicals 
(15%). VCR's are used primarily for jazz, classical music, and musicals. 

In line with the format of most radio stations, the greatest use of radio is also for classical 
music (31%) and jazz (28%), falling to 4% for musicals and 3% for plays. Similarly for 
recordings, the 24% use for classical music and 21% use for jazz drops to 7% for operas and 
musicals. Thus, classical and jazz music are the main uses for all three media (outside the use 
of TV for visual arts). 



26 



Table II. 2 translates the Table II. 1 percentages into estimated national audience sizes. Thus, 
the number of adults who have seen a video performance of jazz is 40.9 million (22% of 185.8 
million people). As noted above, the audiences for classical music on all three types of media 
(video, radio, and recordings) are about 10 percentage points larger than for jazz, while the 
media audiences for opera, musicals and plays are considerably smaller than jazz media 
audiences. The largest single arts media audience is the 63.2 million viewers of the visual arts 
programs on video. TV and other media audiences are generally much larger than the 
respective numbers attending live performances, with musicals as an exception. 



TABLE II.2: 1992 POPULATION ESTIMATES* OF 
BROADCAST AND RECORDED MEDIA 
ARTS AUDIENCES 


Art Form 


Video 

(TV & VCR) 

(Millions) 


Radio 
(Millions) 


Recordings 
(Millions) 


Attendance 

at Live 

Performances 

(Millions) 


Jazz 


40.9 


52.0 


39.0 


19.7 


Classical 


48.3 


57.6 


44.6 


23.2 


Opera 


22.3 


16.7 


13.0 


6.1 


Musicals 


31.6 


7.4 


11.1 


32.3 


Plays 


33.4 


5.4 


NA 


25.1 


Dance 


37.2 


NA 


NA 


18.6 


Visual Arts 


63.2 


NA 


AN 


49.6 



Participation rate multiplied by the U.S. adult population (185.8 million). 



1992 Viewings of Arts Activities on Video 



Table II. 3 presents the total annual number of 1992 viewings of arts-related programs on video. 
For jazz, it can be seen that the average number of video viewings per viewer is about 6, which 
when multiplied by the 40.9 million viewers of jazz programs on TV or VCR, results in more 
than 240 million total annual viewings. In the case of the visual arts, both the large audience 
size and the large number of viewings per person combine to produce a total of more than 500 
million viewings. 



27 



TABLE IL3: 1992 ESTIMATED NUMBER OF VIEWINGS 
OF ARTS PROGRAMS ON VIDEO 


Art Form 


Size of Video 
Audience 
(Millions) 


Average Number 

of Viewings Per 

Viewer 


Total Number 

of Viewings 

(Millions) 


Jazz 


40.9 


6.1 


249.5 


Classical Music 


48.3 


6.4 


309.1 


Opera 


22.3 


4.1 


91.4 


Musicals 


31.6 


4.3 


135.9 


Plays 


33.4 


8.0 


267.2 


Dance 


37.2 


6.3 


234.4 


Visual Arts 


63.2 


8.9 


562.5 



The new SPPA questions on video viewings not only helps capture that new activity, but also 
represents an expansion of the medium of television. New media technology may be expected 
to produce new media audiences for the arts. 



3. Trends in the Usage of Media for Arts Content: 1982-1992 



Table II. 4 shows trend data for the usage rates of different media forms for various arts 
activities. The most dramatic changes are the increases in the sizes of the radio audiences for 
jazz and classical music as well as the increases in TV audiences for visual arts programs. The 
3 percentage point rise in the use of TV for jazz and the 2 point rise in the radio audience for 
opera are the largest of the other increases in the table and both are also statistically significant. 
The decreases of 6 and 9 percentage points in the use of TV for watching musicals and plays, 
respectively, are also statistically significant. The other entries in Table II. 4 show little if any 
change in use of the media for arts content over the decade. 



28 



TABLE II.4: 1982-92 DIFFERENCES IN USAGE OF 

BROADCAST AND RECORDED MEDIA 

FOR ARTS RELATED CONTENT 


Art Form 


Usage Rate (Percent) 


Change from 
1982 to 1992 


1982 
(n=5683) 


1985 

(n=2125) 


1992 
(n=12,736) 


Jazz: 
TV 
Radio 
Record 


18 
18 

20 


17 
18 
19 


21 
28 
21 


+3* 

+ 10* 

+ 1 


Classical: 
TV 
Radio 
Record 


25 
20 

22 


24 

21 
21 


25 
31 
24 




+11' 

+2 


Opera: 
TV 
Radio 
Record 


12 
7 
8 


12 

7 

7 


12 
9 

7 




+2* 
-1 


Musicals: 
TV 
Radio 
Record 


21 
4 
8 


18 

5 
7 


15 
4 
6 


-6* 



-2" 


Plays: 
TV 
Radio 


26 
4 


21 

4 


17 
3 


-9' 

-1 


Ballet: 
TV 


16 


15 


NA 


NA 


Dance: 

TV 


NA 


NA 


19 


NA 


Visual Arts: 
TV 


23 


25 


32 


+9' 



The difference is statistically significant at the 95% confidence level, 
n denotes the sample size. 



These trend data in Table II.4 are shown graphically in Figure 12 for television, Figure 13 for 
radio, and Figure 14 for recordings. Figure 12 shows that the main growth in TV is for visual 
arts programs and jazz, while significant declines are shown in TV use for musicals and plays. 
Figure 13 shows the rather large growth in radio audiences for jazz and classical music. Figure 
14 shows smaller growth in the audience for jazz and classical music on recordings, possibly 
related to the conversion by listeners to compact discs. 



29 



Arts Participation Through Television 
1982 to 1992 



Jazz Classical Opera Musicals 

Music 




■ 1982 
□ 1985 
W 1992 



Plays 



Visual 
Arts 



Figure 12 



Arts Participation Through Radio 
1982 to 1992 




■ 1982 
□ 1985 
H 1992 



M t,f S 



Jazz 



Classical 
Music 



Opera 



Musicals 



Plays 



Figure 13 



30 



Arts Participation Through Recordings 
1982 to 1992 




Figure 14 



Total Audience Size: The increase in the U.S. population between 1982 and 1992 also 
affected the overall sizes of these media audiences for the arts. Table II. 5 shows the relevant 
comparisons in arts audience sizes across the decade and puts these changes in somewhat 
broader perspective. In the middle columns of Table II.5, it can be seen that the growth in the 
radio audiences for jazz, classical and opera music is each at least 40%, while the growth of 
TV audiences of visual arts and jazz is 32-37%. The growth of TV audiences for classical 
music is 14%. The growth in audiences for recordings of jazz and classical music is 20% and 
25%, respectively. All of the media audiences for theatrical performances (musicals and plays) 
show net declines over the decade. While the radio audience for opera rose 49% across the 
decade, usage of TV and recordings for opera content grew less than the 13.3% increase in the 
general population. 



31 



I 



TABLE IL5: 1982-92 PERCENTAGE CHANGES IN THE SIZES OF ARTS MEDIA AUDIENCES 1 


Art Form 


Television 


Radio 


Recording 




1982 Media 
Audience 
(Millions) 


1992 Media 
Audience 
(Millions) 


Change 


1982 Media 
Audience 
(Millions) 


1992 Media 
Audience 
(Millions) 


Change 


1982 Media 
Audience 

(Millions) 


1992 Media 
Audience 
(Millions) 


1 

Change 1 


Jazz 


29.6 


39.0 


+32% 


30.4 


52.0 


+71% 


32.4 


39.0 


+20% 1 


Classical 
Music 


40.8 


46.5 


+14 


36.0 


57.6 


+60 


35.6 


44.6 


+25 a 


Opera 


20.9 


22.3 


+7 


11.2 


16.7 


+49 


12.5 


13.0 


+4 


Musicals 


29.8 


27.9 


-6 


8.3 


7.4 


-11 


13.0 


11.1 


-15 


Plays 


36.5 


31.6 


-13 


6.4 


5.6 


-13 


NA 


NA 


- 


Dance 


NA 


55.3 


NA 


NA 


NA 


- 


NA 


NA 


- 


Visual 
Arts 


43.3 


59.5 


+37 


NA 


NA 


- 


NA 


NA 


- 



Table II. 5 reinforces the important growth of radio audiences for jazz, classical music, and 
opera since 1982, in contrast to radio broadcasts of musicals and other theater productions. 
The growth in TV audiences for visual arts programs is also impressive, but the medium of 
radio is where most of the growth in arts audiences is found. 



B. Arts Media Audiences by Demographic Factors 



In general the demographic correlates of using the media for arts programming shown in 
Appendix Table B.2 are much the same as they are for attending live performances and events. 
Education was the major factor related to usage of the broadcast media for the arts, followed 
by income differences that were largely a function of education. Women, whites, and middle- 
aged people were more likely than men, minorities, and young or elderly people to use the 
media for arts, but these differences were much smaller and less consistent than for education. 

At the same time certain of these differences in media audience characteristics by 
demographics were larger or smaller than others. For example, 

Similarly, the biggest gender difference in arts media use between men and 
women occurs for men's higher attending to jazz programs. Women watch 
more dance programs on TV, but otherwise male-female differences are minimal 

The main racial differences occur for attending to media jazz programs among 
blacks and to classical music among other racial groups. Otherwise there are few 
differences in the use of the media for arts programs among whites and blacks. 



32 



The most pronounced age differences are found in the high rates of watching 
classical music on TV among 55-64 year olds, and the small differences in 
listening to classical music and musicals on recordings and listening to musicals 
and plays on radio. 

Although evident for all arts media use, educational differences were particularly 
large for listening to classical music on radio and recordings and were smaller 
for watching TV dance programs. 

Rates of arts participation via broadcast and recorded media were higher for 
higher income respondents than for lower income respondents. The effect of 
higher income was weaker than the effect of higher educational level. Both 
conclusions also apply to attendance at live arts performances and events. High 
income people were also more likely to listen to classical music on radio and 
on recordings and to watch dance on TV. 



1. 1982 and 1992 Demographic Differences in Arts Media Participation 



Appendix Tables B.2 and B.3 show, respectively, the 1992 and 1982 usage rates of broadcast 
media for arts programming by demographic group. Appendix Table B.4 shows the differences 
between these rates. These tables show that the 1992 correlations of arts media usage with 
demographic factors were very similar to those found in the 1982 study. In general, there were 
fewer significant changes in the composition of the arts media audiences than there were for 
live arts audiences during this decade. 

Among the more noteworthy trends in Appendix Table B.4 are the following: 

Gender differences remained fairly constant, with a relatively greater decline in 
the rate of viewing of opera programs on TV among women. 

The racial composition of the arts media audience changed only slightly over the 
decade. Blacks reported a greater increase than whites and other races in TV 
viewings of jazz and a smaller decrease in TV viewings of plays. However, 
blacks also reported smaller gains than whites both for radio listenings of 
classical music and for TV viewing of visual arts programs. 

The major change in the age profile of the arts media audiences is the greater 
arts media usage among older groups. Among those aged 65 and older, this 
trend is found for TV audiences of jazz, classical music, and dance. For radio 
audiences of jazz, classical music and opera, this trend is true for those aged 45 
and older. For TV plays and musicals there is evidence of a greater decline 
among those under age 55 than for those 55 and older. 

The most interesting and consistent changes in the usage of media are those that 
involve educational level . The main gains in listening to jazz and classical 

33 



music on the radio occurred among those with at least a college education. The 
main gains in TV viewing of opera also were in this group. On the other hand, 
the main declines - both in TV viewings of musicals and plays and listenings 
to recordings of musicals - are found among the college educated as well. Put 
another way, the college educated are the vanguard groups for both increases 
and declines in arts participation through the media. 

A similar pattern emerges for income. The main increase in radio listening to 
jazz, as well as the major declines in TV viewings of classical music, operas, 
musicals and plays (and listening to recordings of musicals) occurred among the 
higher income groups. As noted earlier, these data have not been adjusted to 
reflect inflation between 1982 and 1992. 



2. Readings of Poetry and Novels 



In addition to media questions related to the arts, two new SPPA questions examined readings 
of poetry and novels. These were combination "live-media" questions in that the respondents 
were asked about listening to such readings done "either live or recorded." No follow-up 
questions were asked about the frequency of such readings. 

Some 9.1% of SPPA' 92 respondents said they listened to a live or recorded poetry reading and 
7.6% had listened to a live or recorded reading of a novel. That represents about 17 million 
and 14 million people, respectively. As shown in Appendix A.2, the demographic 
characteristics of poetry and novel listeners are much the same as those for other arts activities, 
with education differences predominating. 



34 



CHAPTER III. PERSONAL PARTICIPATION IN 

THE ARTS 



Chapters I and II have analyzed the public's participation as spectators at arts performances 
and events. People also can participate in the arts more directly, both by personally performing/ 
creating and by taking classes and lessons in the various arts. Not surprisingly, the number 
of such arts participants is much smaller than the number of arts spectators - either for live 
performances or for media programs. Nonetheless, personal arts participation does involve 
millions of American adults. 

Section A describes such participation in the arts through personal performance and through 
involvement in various arts/crafts activities. Section B describes how people participate in the 
arts by taking art classes and lessons. The relevant questionnaire items for these activities are 
shown in Appendix C. 



Personal Performances and Arts/Crafts Activities 



This section describes participation in the arts through personal arts performances and 
involvement in various arts/crafts activities. The 1 992 levels of personal arts participation are 
presented, as well as changes in personal participation in the arts across time. In addition, 
personal arts participation levels that involve public performance or display are distinguished 
from personal arts participation levels for the activity in general. 



1992 Personal Participation in the Arts 



Table III. 1 shows performance rates for several arts activities. Separate frequencies are shown 
for respondents who performed in public and for respondents who engaged in the activity only 
in private. Thus, Table III.l shows that 1.7% of respondents played jazz music in the previous 
year, which translates into 3.2 million American adults. Somewhat less than half of these 3.2 
million (1.3 million) played jazz in a public performance. The number of people who had 
played any classical music was nearly double that for jazz (7.8 million); however, the number 
of people who had played classical music in a public performance was only about 30% larger 
(1.7 million) than the number who had performed jazz in public. The number of people who 
had sung opera music either publicly or privately was less than half than the number of people 
who had personally played either classical music or jazz music. In this way, the relative 
performance levels for these types of music largely mirror the sizes of the respective attendance 
and media participation levels for jazz, classical music, and opera. 



35 



TABLE IIL1: 1992 PERSONAL ARTS PARTICIPATION LEVELS 


Type of Participation 


Participation Level 


Public Performance/Display Level 


Percent 


Number 
(Millions) 


Percent 


Number 
(Millions) 


Music/ Art 
Performances 


Play Jazz 


1.7% 


3.2 


0.70% 


1.3 


Play Classical 
Music 


4.2 


7.8 


0.90 


1.7 


Sing Opera 


1.1 


2.0 


0.24 


0.4 


Sing Musical 


3.8 


7.1 


0.73 


1.4 


Sing Choral 


NA 


NA 


6.3 


11.7 


Act 


NA 


NA 


1.6 


3.0 


Ballet 


.2 


.4 


0.03 


0.1 


Modern Dance 


8.1 


15.0 


1.2 


2.2 


Art/Crafts 


Pottery 


8.4 


15.6 


1.7 


3.2 


Needlework 


24.8 


46.1 


2.4 


4.5 


Photography 


11.6 


21.6 


1.7 


3.2 


Painting 


9.6 


17.8 


2.0 


3.7 


Writing 


7.4 


13.7 


0.9 


1.7 


Composing 


2.1 


3.9 


0.7 


1.3 


Purchasing 


Art Works 


22.1 


41.1 


NA 


NA* 



NA indicates the question was not asked or is not applicable. 



At the same time, all of these personal performance levels are dwarfed by the number of 
people who had sung in a choir or glee club performance in public (6.3%, 1 1.7 million adults). 
Moreover, the proportion of people who reported that they had acted in a public performance 
(1.6%) was more than double the average of the public performance rates of the four main 
music types. Performance in modern/other dance revealed a similar pattern in that 1 .2% of the 
respondents (2.2 million adults) reported having taken part in a public modern/other dance 
performance while 8.1% reported that they had engaged in such dancing either publicly or 
privately. The performance numbers for ballet (0.2% overall participation, 0.031% in public 
performances) are also reported. 

The personal participation levels for various arts/crafts activities in the lower part of Table III. 1 
were generally much higher than those for these musical and performance arts activities. This 
was particularly true for needle crafts (weaving, crocheting, etc), in which 24.8% of the 
respondents (46.1 million adults) reported having engaged in such an activity during the 



36 



previous year. Moreover, an estimated 4.5 million adults, or one-tenth of those who reported 
personally doing needle crafts, were involved in some type of public display of their needle 
crafts. Of those who reported that they had painted, taken photographs, or made pottery/other 
crafts, the overall percentages who had displayed their work publicly were, respectively, 2.0%, 
1.7%, and 1.7%. About 1.5 million adults (0.8% of the adult population) had either some of 
their creative writing published or one of their musical compositions performed in public. 
Indeed, the number of people who reported having one of their music compositions played in 
public was almost as large as the number of people who played jazz or classical music in a 
public performance - shown in the top part of Table III. 1 . 

Finally, in terms of participation via the marketplace for arts objects, more than a fifth of the 
SPPA respondents (22.1%, over 40 million adults) said they owned an original work of art; a 
third of those (13.3 million) said they had purchased or acquired an original piece of art the 
previous year. 



2. 1992 Demographic Differences in Personal Arts Participation 



Performance Activities: As shown in Appendix C.2, education plays the major role in 
predicting differences in having personally performed in arts activities, with income 
differences appearing only for playing classical music or singing operettas or musicals. 
Notable demographic differences in personal arts performances include: 

Women are slightly more likely than men to play classical music, sing musicals, 
sing in a choir or dance in a ballet. 

Black people are more likely than whites or other racial groups to sing in a choir 
or act in a play. 

Except for opera and musical singer, younger age groups are more likely than 
older age groups to have performed in an arts activity. 

• Educational differences are quite large for most arts activities, but small for 

dance and ballet performance, and for acting in theater. 



Non-Performance Activities: 

In general, the largest differences in personal arts participation in the second part of Appendix 
Table C.2 are found by education and then by income. Important differences by age and race 
are also evident. Among the differences in personal arts participation by demographic groups 
are: 

Men are slightly more likely than women to compose music and do art 
photography, while women are far more likely to do needlework. 



37 



Whites are more likely than blacks or other races to do needlework, paint, 
compose music, and own a work of art. 

Younger age groups personally participate more than other age groups in 
painting, creative writing and composing music. The 25-34 year old age group 
participates more than other age groups in pottery/other crafts and photography. 
Older people do more needlework than other age groups and the middle-aged 
are more likely than others to own a piece of art. 

Educational differences are strong for all activities, except for pottery/other 
crafts and needlework. 

Income differences appear only for photography and owning art works. 



3. Changes in Personal Participation in the Arts Across Time 



Since many of the personal performance questions were asked for the first time in 1992, it is 
not possible to detect changes in participation since 1982. However, responses to questions 
that could be compared are arrayed in Table III.2 for the 1982, 1985, and 1992 SPPA surveys. 
These include the public performance questions for music-theater-dance and the general 
participation questions for non-performance arts activities. 

In the case of the public- performing arts activities, the results are quite stable across the 1 
year time span, given the very low levels of participation (generally less than 1%). There are 
increases in singing in a public opera performance, and, in contrast, there are decreases in 
singing in public musical/operetta performances and in dancing in a ballet performance. The 
large increase since 1 982 in acting in a live stage performance could be due to a change in the 
question format. 

Overall stability also is in evidence for more general participation in non-performance 
activities. Indeed, the personal participation levels in 1992 in photography, painting, and 
creative writing are virtually identical to those for 1982 and 1985. There were notable declines 
in the first two "crafts" activities in Table III.2, showing a 4 point decline in pottery/ 
leatherwork type activities and a 7 point decline in weaving/crocheting type activities. 
Participation in these two activities has declined by about 20% since the 1980s. 



38 



TABLE 1112: CHANGES IN SELECTED PERSONAL ARTS PARTICIPATION RATES 


Activity 


Personal Participation Rate 
(Percent) 


Change from 
1982 to 1992 


1982 


1985 


1992 


Public Music 
Performances 


Play Jazz 


0.78% 


0.68% 


0.70% 


-0.08 


Play Classical Music 


0.90 


0.85 


0.90 





Sing Opera 


0.08 


0.04 


0.24 


+0.16 


Sing Musicals 


0.89 


0.83 


0.73 


-0.16 


Sing Chorale 


NA*" 


NA 


6.30 


NA 


Public Theater 
Performances 


Act' 


0.77 


0.81 


1.60 


+0.83 


Public Dance 
Performances 


Modern/Other 


NA 


NA 


1.20 


NA 


Ballet 


0.13 


0.12 


0.03 


-0.10 


Arts/Crafts 
Activities 

(Total 
Participation) 


Pottery 


12.0 


11.0 


8.4 


-3.6" 


Needlework 


32.0 


28.0 


24.8 


-7.2" 


Photography 


11.0 


10.0 


11.6 


+0.6 


Painting 


10.0 


9.0 


9.6 


-0.4 


Creative Writing 


7.0 


6.0 


7.4 


+0.4 


Composing Music 


NA 


NA 


2.1 


NA 



Change in question format 

"Statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. 
""NA indicates the question was not asked. 



39 



B. Art Classes and Lessons 



In addition to personal performance, people learn about and participate in the arts through 
various classes and lessons. The 1992 SPPA survey inquired about such classes and lessons 
for the eight types of activities shown in Table III.3. The questions are shown in Appendix 
Table C.3. The data represent respondents who had taken such classes at any time in their 
lives. 



TABLE U13: LIFETIME PARTICIPATION IN ARTS CLASSES/LESSONS 


Class/Lesson 


Participation Levels 


Change from 
1982 to 1992 


1982 


1985 


1992 


Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


Number in 
Millions 


Music 


47% 


47% 


40% 


74.3 


-T 


Visual Arts 


24 


25 


18 


33.4 


-6' 


Acting/Theater 


9 


10 


7 


13.0 


-2' 


Ballet 


7 


8 


7 


13.0 





Modern/Other Dance 


NA" 


NA 


16 


29.7 


NA 


Creative Writing 


18 


18 


16 


29.7 


-2 


Art Appreciation 


20 


19 


23 


42.7 


+3* 


Music Appreciation 


20 


20 


18 


33.4 


-2 



' Statistically significant at the 95% confidence level 
"NA indicates the question was not asked. 



It can be seen that almost 40% of the SPPA'92 respondents (representing more than 74 million 
adults) said they had taken music lessons at some time, and about 18% had taken classes in 
painting and the other visual arts. About 7% had taken acting or ballet lessons, and 16% had 
taken lessons in modern/other dance and in creative writing. Finally, about 23% had taken 
classes in art appreciation and 18% had taken classes in music appreciation. 

The right-hand column of Table III. 3, shows that these levels are generally down slightly from 
the levels reported in the 1980s. Only attendance at art appreciation classes showed an increase 
over 1982 levels. 



40 



Demographic Differences in Participation in Arts Classes 



Education and income are the main predictors of having taken arts lessons or classes, but 
certain age and gender differences can be seen as well. Among the notable demographic 
differences in Appendix Table C.4 are: 

• Women are much more likely than men to have taken ballet or dance lessons, 
and to a lesser extent music lessons. 

Whites are more likely than blacks or other races to have taken arts classes or 
lessons, especially music lessons and dance lessons 

The youngest age group (aged 18-24) is more likely than any other age group 
to have taken any type of arts lessons, except for dance and music appreciation 
which are fairly constant across age groups. 

Educational is associated with the most significant differences in taking all types 
of arts lessons. 

• Income differences are almost as large as education differences in predicting 
participation in many of these arts classes. 



41 



CHAPTER IV. COMPARISONS OF TYPES OF ARTS 

PARTICIPATION 



This chapter compares levels of arts participation across the three type of arts participation 
defined in the preceding chapters: (1) attendance as a spectator at live arts performances and 
events, (2) participation by watching or listening to arts programming through broadcast media 
and recordings, and (3) participation by personal direct performance. Section A presents the 
comparison of the levels of arts participation in 1992, and Section B shows how trends in 
participation in other leisure activities compare to the trends in arts participation in general. 
The leisure participation items on the SPPA'92 questionnaire are shown in Appendix D.l. 



A. Different Types of Arts Participation: 1992 



Although the personal performance levels are far lower than the spectator levels, certain 
patterns in levels across the various arts forms can be detected in Table IV. 1. For instance, 
the audience for classical music is consistently slightly larger than the jazz audience, which in 
turn is larger than the audience for opera. For all these three types of music, this is a 
consistent pattern. However, participation in musicals is quite different. Attendance at live 
performances of musicals is higher than for attendance at classical music performances, but 
participation in musicals through the media is lower than for classical music, and personal 
participation in musicals is almost the same as personal participation in classical music. 

Both the live and video/radio audiences for non-musical theater and those for musicals were 
found to be roughly equivalent in Chapter II. However, the estimated number of live public 
performers as actors reported in Chapter III is more than twice as large as for musicals. 

The size of the audiences for live and video performances of modern/other dance is, in turn, 
roughly the same as for theater, and the number of dancers in public performances (1.2%) is 
about half-way between those who sung in a musical production (.73%) or who acted in a 
stage play (1.6%). However, 8.1% of respondents reported engaging in some form of modern/ 
other dance. That is many times larger than the numbers who did ballet dancing, either in 
public or private; at the same time, the audience for live modern/other dance is 50% larger than 
it is for live ballet performances. This suggests that respondents may have included social 
dancing in their responses concerning modern/other dancing. 



42 



TABLE IV. 1: 1992 ARTS PARTICIPATION RATES BY TYPE OF PARTICIPATION 


ACTIVITY 


ATTENDANCE 

AT LIVE 
PERFORMANCE 


MEDIA 


PERSONAL 
PARTICIPATION 


Video 


Radio 


Recording 


Public 

and 

Private 


Public 
only 


Music 


Jazz 


11% 


22% 


28% 


21% 


1.7% 


0.7% 


Classical 


13 


26 


31 


24 


4.2 


0.9 


Opera 


3 


12 


9 


7 


1.1 


0.24 


Musicals 


17 


17 


4 


6 


3.8 


0.73 


Theater 


Acting/Plays 


14 


18 


3 


NA 


NA 


1.6 


Dance 


Modern/Other 


7 


20 


NA 


NA 


8.1 


1.2 


Ballet 


5 


NA 


NA 


NA 


0.2 


0.03 


Visual 
Arts 


Art Museums 
and Painting 


27 


34 


NA 


NA 


9.6 


2.0 


Creative 
Writing 


Literature 


54 


NA 


NA 


NA 


7.4 


0.9 


Poetry 


9 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


Novel 


8 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 

l 1 



The visual arts show the highest levels of any of the above arts for each type of participation - 
34% viewing on TV or video, 27% attendance at an art gallery/museum, 9.6% self- 
participation, and 2% showing in public displays. On all types of participation, the visual arts 
emerge higher than for music-theater-dance. At the same time, that would not be the case if 
various musical and theater performers were combined into a single category as the visual arts 
were. 

Not shown in Table IV. 1 is the percentage of respondents (54%) who read literature (novels, 
short stories, poetry, and plays), a rate that is double the attendance rate at art galleries (27%). 
However, the percentage rate of those who personally engage in creative writing (7%) and the 
number of writers who had their writings published (less than 1%) was lower than the number 
of visual artists (10%) and lower than the number of publicly displayed artists (2%). 



43 



B. Participation in Other Leisure Activities 



An important issue in interpreting the above changes in levels of arts participation at live 
events is how these trends compare to trends in other leisure activities, activities which may 
be seen as alternative ways to spend leisure time. Ten of these other leisure activities are 
shown in Table IV.2 in comparison with arts participation in general, which is shown in the 
first row of the table. More detailed data can be found in Appendix D. 1 . Participation in 
these other activities can be compared to arts participation in general, which is shown in the 
first row of the table. 



TABLE IV.2: PARTICIPATION IN LEISURE ACTIVITIES 


Activity 


1982 


1985 


1992 


Change from 
1982 to 1982 


Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


Number 
(Millions) 


Arts Participation* 


39% 


39% 


41% 


76.2 


+2 


Exercise 


51 


57 


60 


111.5 


+9*" 


Movies 


63 


59 


59 


109.6 


-4 


Gardening 


60 


55 


55 


102.2 


-5"* 


Amusement Parks 


49 


45 


50 


92.9 • 


+ 1 


Home Improvements 


60** 


58** 


48 


89.2 


NA 


Active Sports 


39 


41 


39 


72.5 





Sports Events** 


48** 


50** 


37 


68.7 


NA 


Outdoor Activities 


36 


37 


34 


63.2 


-2 


Volunteer/Charity 


28 


30 


33 


61.3 


+5 


TV Hours/Day 


3.0 


2.8 


3.0 


hours 



* Defined as attendance at one of the seven benchmark arts activities in Chapter I 
•* Questions asked in 1982 and 1985 were different from questions in 1992. 
*** Statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. 



In regard to trends in these other leisure activities, the most notable increases show up for 
jogging and other forms of exercise (up 9 points from 1982 but only 3 points from 1985) and 
in volunteer/charity work (up 5 points since 1982). Other leisure activities, however, show 
decreases, such as the declines of 4 to 5 points found for attending movies and for gardening. 



44 



Roughly equivalent levels of participation across time were found for going to amusement 
parks, participating in active sports (although down 2 points since 1985) and participating in 
outdoor activities. There was no change in the dominant leisure activity, TV viewing. 
Previous studies (e.g., Robinson 1991) show that TV watching consumes almost half of all 
leisure time and that it is a major competitor with arts participation in the sense that people 
who watch more TV participate less in the arts (Robinson, 1987). Analysis of the present data 
reaffirm both findings. 

1. Comparison of Arts Participation to Participation in Other Leisure Activities 

When compared with the participation rates of the other leisure activities, it can be seen that 
the overall arts participation rate in benchmark activities falls in the middle, with about half 
of the leisure activities having higher participation rates and half of the leisure activities having 
lower participation rates. Table IV.2 shows that this relation is found in both 1982 and 1992. 
Nonetheless, the relative standing of arts participation with respect to the other types of leisure 
participation improved between 1982 and 1992. The last column in Table IV.2 shows that of 
the 8 comparable other leisure activities, the participation rates of 3 declined, 2 showed no 
change, and 3 showed an increase. 

A number of other patterns in Table IV.2 also reflect this improvement. In 1982, six of the 
other leisure activities had higher participation rates than the participation rate in benchmark 
articles activities and three of them had lower participation rates. In general, the differences 
between the higher participation rates and the arts participation rate became considerably 
smaller between 1982 and 1992. Three of the six higher participation rates remained higher 
in 1992 but showed relatively smaller differences than 1982 differences (going to the movies, 
home improvements, and gardening). Table IV.2 shows a similar situation for sports events 
and home improvements, but the fact that different questions were asked prevents valid 
comparisons. Only the rates for participation in exercise and in volunteer/charity work 
increased more than the rates for arts participation. 

In general, the slight gain in arts participation since 1982 stands in contrast to other leisure 
activities, which have either declined or have remained steady over time. 



45 



2. Demographic Differences in Participation in Other Leisure Activities 



Even for these non-arts activities, education and income play the most important role in 
predicting differences in participation. Some interesting age differences are also evident. The 
data are shown in Appendix D.l. Some notable demographic correlations include: 

Men are more likely than women to attend sports events, play sports and do 
home improvements, whereas women are more likely to garden and watch TV. 

Blacks watch more TV than whites or other racial groups, but are less likely to 
do each of the other leisure activities than whites. 

• The youngest age group (age 1 8-24) is more likely than any other age group to 

go to movies, sports events, and amusement parks - and to exercise, play sports, 
and engage in outdoor activities. Middle-aged people are more likely than other 
age groups to be involved in volunteer/charity work, home improvement 
activities and gardening. People past the age of 65 are the heaviest TV viewers 
and middle-aged people watch TV the least. 

Educational differences are large for all activities, with one of the most 
noticeable differences being the low TV viewing of the better educated. 

For many activities, income differences are as large as differences by education 
level. 



I 



46 



CHAPTER V. ARTS ATTITUDES AND PREDISPOSITION 

TO THE ARTS 



As in 1982 and 1985, SPPA'92 included supplementary sets of questions about Americans' 
attitudes related to the arts. Responses to two such sets of questions are reviewed briefly in 
this chapter. Section A presents data reflecting respondents' interests in attending more 
performances and section B characterizes respondents' preferences for various types of music. 
The relevant questions are shown in Appendices E.l and E.3. 



Interest in Increased Attendance 



Table V.l shows the proportions of SPPA respondents expressing an interest in attending more 
arts performances than they currently do. In the first column of Table VI. 1, it can be seen that 
these levels of interest in additional participation are very much in proportion to current 
attendance levels. Thus, 38% express an interest in going to more visual arts venues, 36% in 
attending more performances of musicals, and 34% in attending more plays. These are the 
three benchmark activities with the highest levels of attendance in Table LI. Similarly, the 
lowest rates of increased interest are found for opera and ballet, the art forms with the lowest 
participation levels. Some 29% of respondents expressed no interest in attending more 
performances of any of these art forms. 



TABLE V.l: DESIRE TO ATTEND MORE ARTS PERFORMANCES 


Activity 


1982 


1985 


1992 


Change from 
1982 to 1992 


Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


Number in Millions 


Jazz 


18% 


19% 


25% 


46.5 


+7* 


Classical Music 


18 


16 


25 


46.5 


+7. 


Opera 


7 


8 


11 


20.4 


+4* 


Musicals 


33 


29 


36 


66.9 


+3' 


Plays 


25 


23 


34 


63.2 


+9* 


Ballet 


12 


12 


18 


33.4 


+6' 


Dance 


NA" 


NA 


24 


44.6 


NA 


Art Museums 


31 


31 


38 


70.6 


+7* 



"Statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. 
**NA Questions were not asked in 1982 and 1985. 



47 



At the same time, these levels of interest in increased participation are notably higher in 1 992 
than in the 1980s for all seven activities. This is most particularly the case for attendance at 
plays, art museums/galleries, classical music concerts and jazz performances - again, the 
activities with currently the highest attendance levels. 



Demographic Differences in Increased Interests in Arts Attendances 



The desire to attend more arts performances shares the same demographic correlates in 
Appendix Table E.2 as those associated with actual attendance. These correlates include: 

• Except for jazz, women expressed more interest than men in attending more 

performances of every arts activity - especially ballet and dance performances. 

Except for jazz and dance, whites expressed more interest than blacks in 
attending more performances of each arts activity. 

Older to middle-aged people expressed greater desires than any other age group 
to attend more arts performances and events of every arts activity except for jazz 
and dance. The highest interest in attending more jazz performances was 
expressed by those aged 18-24, and increased interest in attending more ballet 
performances was rather uniform across age groups. 

Greater interest in increased attendance at all arts activities was found for each 
higher level of education, peaking for those with a graduate degree. 

Greater interest in increased attendance at all arts forms was found for those 
with higher levels of income - but at a lower level than for those with graduate 
education. 



B. Music Preferences 



Further insight into the importance of the arts relative to other leisure interests come from the 
SPPA questions on music preferences. This question was extended in the 1992 SPPA to 
include eight new types of music and the earlier SPPA category "Soul/Blues/R&B" was 
separated into "Soul" and "Blues/R&B". The proportions of the SPPA sample saying they 
"liked" each of the 20 types of music are shown in Table V.2. 



48 



TABLE V.2: MUSIC PREFERENCES 

(Percent of the Adult Population Liking Each Type of Music) 


Music Type 


1982 


1985 


1992 


Change from 
1982 to 1992 


Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


Number in Millions 


Classical/Chamber 


28% 


30% 


33% 


61.3 


+5* 


Opera 


10 


10 


12 


22.3 


+2* 


Show Tunes/Operettas 


23 


24 


28 


52.0 


+5* 


Jazz 


26 


30 


34 


63.2 


+8* 


Reggae 


NA*" 


NA 


19 


35.3 


NA 


Rap 


NA 


NA 


12 


22.3 


NA 


Soul" 


26 


33 


24 


44.6 


NA 


Blues/R&B** 


40 


74.3 


NA 


Latin/Salsa 


NA 


NA 


20 


37.2 


NA 


Big Band 


33 


32 


35 


65.0 


+2 


Parade/March 


NA 


NA 


18 


33.4 


NA 


Country-Western 


58 


53 


52 


96.6 


-6* 


Bluegrass 


25 


24 


29 


53.9 


+4* 


Rock 


35 


42 


44 


81.8 


+9* 


Ethnic/National 


NA 


NA 


22 


40.9 


NA 


Folk (Contemporary)"* 


25 


25 


, 23 


42.7 


-2 


Mood/Easy 


48 


52 


49 


91.0 


+.1 


New Age 


NA 


NA 


15 


27.9 


NA 


Choral Glee Club 


NA 


NA 


14 


26.0 


NA 


Hymns/Gospel 


36 


40 


38 


70.6 


+2 



Statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. 
"The wording of the question was changed between 1985 and 1992. 
"*NA Questions were not asked in 1982 and 1985. 



In the fourth column of Table V.2, it can be seen that more respondents (52%, which translates 
into more than 96 million adults) liked country-western music than any other type. Mood/Easy 
Listening music was second on the list (49%) and rock music third (44%), followed by blues 
(40%), hymns/gospel (38%), and big-band (35%). Classical music (33%), jazz (34%), and 



49 



show tunes (28%) were more in the middle level of these music preferences while opera was 
liked by 12% of respondents. 

The second part of Table V.2 shows that classical music, jazz, and show tunes are gaining 
more in popularity than other types of music (except rock music). Classical music and show 
tunes are up 5 points over 1982 levels (also true for bluegrass music), and jazz shows the 
greatest increase of any type (except rock music) at 8 points above 1982 levels. Country- 
western music declined the most (6 points), but declines are found as well for folk music and 
for mood music. 

The trends suggest that while classical music, jazz, and show tunes have a smaller than average 
base audience, they are becoming more popular than other types of music. Preliminary 
analyses reveal that these increases do not result simply from replacement of older, less- 
educated people with less liking of these types of music. Rather, the increases reflect increased 
liking of these types of music among middle-aged people. Therefore, it is not clear whether 
future substantial increases in these music preferences should be expected. 



Demographic Differences in Music Preferences 



Music preferences had the familiar pattern of demographic correlates in Appendix Table E.2, 
but varied more by age, race and gender for certain types of music. Demographic patterns in 
music preferences are noted below: 

• Women expressed more liking for opera and musicals than men did, while 
greater male preference was evident for blues and rock music. 

Whites expressed more liking for all types of music than blacks did, except for 
jazz, soul, and blues music. The white-black differences were greatest for 
country music and for rock music. Those of other racial background expressed 
a higher liking of classical music and opera than white respondents did. 

• Those aged 55-74 expressed the greatest appreciation for classical music, opera 
and musicals. This group also expressed the greatest appreciation for big band 
and mood music. The greatest liking for country-western and folk music was 
expressed by those aged 45-54. For jazz and blues the greatest liking was 
expressed by those aged 35-44, and for rock music by those aged 18-24. 

• Those with more education expressed a greater preference for all types of music, 
with the exception of country music. 

Respondents in the highest income group had a higher preference than any other 
income group for all types of music except country- western. However, 
respondents with the highest income were not as appreciative as respondents 
with the most education - except for folk, rock and mood music. 



50 



C. Parental Education 



The 1992 SPPA asked questions about the educational level of the respondent's parents. 
Throughout this report, we have seen that education is the major predictor of arts participation. 
In Table V.3, it can be seen that almost 20% of the SPPA'92 respondents reported growing 
up in a family where the mother or the father had some college education. About 1 0% of these 
parents had a college degree - 12% of the fathers and 8% of the mothers. However, that was 
less than the nearly 15% who reported their parents had not finished primary school, and 
almost a third who reported they had not completed a high school education. 

It can be seen that there were gains in parent's educational levels since 1982. The proportion 
of respondents whose mothers had at least a high school diploma increased from 45% in 1982 
to 56% in 1992; the proportion of respondents who had a father with at least a high school 
diploma increased from 38% to 49%. As can be seen, little of this gain was at the college 
level. The proportion of parents who attended college (whether or not they graduated) 
increased only 1 percentage point for mothers and decreased 3 percentage points for fathers. 

Table V.3 shows that both questions on parental education are strongly related to arts 
participation in the 1992 survey. In terms of the average attendance rate for at least one 
benchmark arts activity in 1992 (41%), Table V.3 shows there is a differential of 47 percentage 
points between respondents whose parents had graduated from college (72-73%) versus 
respondents whose parents had not completed elementary school (25-26%) 

After MCA adjustments for respondents' level of education, age, and income, most of these 
differences are explained. Nonetheless, parental education remains a significant predictor of 
arts participation. 



TABLE V.3: HIGHEST EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF PARENTS 


Educational Level 


Highest Education Level of 
Mother 


Highest Education Level of 
Father 


1982 


1992 


1992 Arts 

Participation 

Rate 


1982 


1992 


1992 Arts 

Participation 

Rate 


0-7 Grade 


16% 


13% 


25% 


19% 


15% 


26% 


Grade School Graduate 


12 


9 


38 


13 


10 


37 


Some High School 


11 


9 


33 


10 


8 


37 


High School Graduate 


31 


39 


47 


21 


30 


46 


Some College 


7 


9 


65 


6 


7 


63 


College Graduate 


7 


8 


72 


11 


12 


73 


Don't Know 


16 


13 


17 


16 


18 


24 



51 



CHAPTER VI. RELATED RESEARCH 



Insights from 12 Local Arts Participation Surveys 



Further insight into the nature of American's arts participation can be found in a 12-community 
study recently commissioned by the Research Division of the National Endowment for the 
Arts. The research involved two major components: (1) the administration of an arts 
participation survey to randomly selected households in each community (the survey examined 
facets of arts participation not examined in the SPPA'92 national survey) and (2) the 
investigation of the "supply" of local arts programs and facilities in the community. Survey 
results for each site were then analyzed in the context of local arts activities, examining the 
varied cultural texture behind the statistics. 

The surveys were conducted by telephone over a three-month period from mid-February to 
mid-May 1992 by Abt Associates. Approximately 400 respondents were interviewed in each 
of 1 1 sites, and 600 were interviewed in Philadelphia. AMS Planning & Research Corp. of 
Southport, CT conducted complementary research into local arts activity levels and prepared 
a summary report (AMS/NEA 1993). 

The 12 local surveys were undertaken to build a better understanding of variations in arts 
participation patterns between different communities and to provide local sponsors with 
valuable information about their areas. Each local survey consisted of three components: 

A "Core Questionnaire", common to all 12 sites - including arts participation 
and demographic information identical to the 1992 national SPPA 

A set of questions, common to all sites but not included in the 1992 national 
SPPA, concerning facilities where arts participation occurred, reasons for not 
attending more often, and sources of information about arts events. 

Community-specific modules, developed by the local partners to address specific 
information needs in each community. 

The 12 communities varied widely in geography and size, from Sedona, Arizona (population 
27,000) to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (4.9 million), and in terms of arts offerings available to 
the public. Some highlights and examples of results from the 12-city study include: 

• "Traditional" venues (i.e., concert halls, theaters, etc.) were used exclusively for 

'Opera' (95%) and 'Ballet' (90%), and about 10% of all classical music 
attenders reported attending a 'Church or Synagogue', underscoring the 
important role of these facilities in the performing arts delivery system. African- 
American and Hispanic respondents used concert halls and opera houses less 
frequently than whites. 

52 



• An overwhelming majority of respondents gets information about arts events 

from the print and broadcast media (84%, includes 'Newspapers', 'Television', 
'Radio' and Magazines'). Much smaller percentages obtain information through 
word of mouth (24% 'Targeted Appeal (16%), and 'Other' (15%). As education 
levels rise so does usage of the media for arts information, and more educated 
and wealthier respondents are more likely to get arts information from 
'Mailings/Flyers'. 

Among those who would like to attend arts events more often, 61% cited one 
reason - "Don't have time". The next two most frequently cited reasons related 
to cost - "overall cost of going to events" (20%) and "cost of tickets" (19%). 
Ten percent or fewer of respondents cited any other reasons. These findings are 
generally consistent with results of earlier SPPAs. "Social/personal barriers' 
(especially "No one to go with") were reported to be more important reasons for 
not attending more often for Pittsburgh and San Jose/Santa Clara County 
respondents, two communities with a high proportion of single households. 

Participation rates in certain cities seem to be linked with a particular arts 
institution or even a particular production. For example, Sedona's popular Jazz 
on the Rocks festival clearly impacts the area's jazz participation rate, with 36% 
of jazz attenders in Sedona reporting attending a "Park or Other Open-Air 
Facility." Pittsburgh's Three Rivers Art Festival, a 17-day annual event of free 
events in the downtown area helps explain the area's high participation rate for 
'Arts/Craft Fairs or Festivals' (55%). 

Demographic correlates of arts participation were similar to those found in the 
SPPA analysis, with attained educational level being the main predictor of arts 
participation. Nevertheless, there are notable differences across communities 
depending on the "supply" of arts in that community. 

Results of this study, then, suggest that supply and demand for arts activity do not always have 
a traditional relationship in the economic sense, but may stimulate each other to achieve higher 
participation levels. In other words, arts programs are not offered solely in response to 
demand, but in some cases can stimulate demand. Where high participation rates were 
observed, there was also high interest in attending those types of events more often, much as 
found in Chapter V. If participation breeds additional interest, then to a degree, supply can 
stimulate additional demand and a spiraling effect can occur. Continued parallel research at 
the local level then can add valuable context and detail to the national surveys and advance our 
understanding of the determinants of arts participation. 



53 



CHAPTER VII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 



A. Major Results 



Across a decade in which participation in certain leisure activities declined and in which the 
arts became involved in increased public controversy, Americans' participation in the arts has 
remained steady, and for some arts activities, increased. However, the largest increases in 
reported arts participation have occurred through the broadcast and recorded media ~ but less 
through the new media (like VCRs, cable TV or CD players) than through the older medium 
of radio. 



1. Attendance at Live Arts Performances/Displays 



When compared to parallel SPPA data collected by the Census Bureau in 1982 (n= 17,254), the 
SPPA'92 data (n=12,736) showed: 

Almost a five point increase (from 22% to 27%) in the proportion of 
adults who had attended an art museum/gallery in the previous year — 
representing an increase of more than 1 3 million people over the decade. 

Almost 2 point increases in proportions of adults attending an arts/crafts 
fair (from 39% to 41%) and in attending non-musical stage plays (from 
12% to 14%), representing live audience gains of 11 and 5.5 million 
adults respectively. 

In contrast, there was a 5 point decline in attending historic/design sites (from 39% to 34%) 
and a 2 point decline in attending musicals/operettas (from 19% to 17%). There was also a 3 
point decline in reading literature in the form of novels, short stories, poetry or plays. 

Overall, more than 41% of American adults reported attending at least one of the seven 
"benchmark" arts performances/events (jazz, classical music, opera, musicals, plays, ballet, art 
museums/galleries) in the previous year. In the 1982 study, when these activities were 
established as benchmark activities to compare with future surveys, that proportion was 39%. 
That was the level also found in the 1985 SPPA, in which 13,628 respondents were 
interviewed. 

As in 1982 and 1985, the major predictor of arts participation was the respondent's level of 
education, with 77% of those with a post-graduate degree attending one of these seven arts 
events vs. less than 10% with only an elementary school education. Income was also a major 
predictor, although most of the differences by income could be explained by the respondent's 
education level. 



54 



Other personal background factors produced much smaller differences in arts participation: 

• Women participated slightly more than men. 

Whites participated slightly more than blacks and other races (but not 
after statistical adjustment for other predictors). 

Older adults (past age 65) participated slightly less than younger adults. 

Again, these patterns of differences were much the same as those found in SPPA'82. 

However some groups did show greater increases in live arts participation than others. Blacks 
showed more gains than whites, for example. People in the "empty-nest" years (ages 45 
through 74) showed more gain than younger adults of the "baby-boom" generation, particularly 
in attending performances of classical music, musicals and plays. Otherwise, baby boomers, 
despite their higher average level of education, showed roughly the same levels of participation 
as older people ~ particularly when examined on a cohort or generational basis. Perhaps more 
of concern is the decline among the baby boomers' next younger cohort, namely those 
currently under age 25 (who were born after the mid-1960s): their attendance at jazz 
performances and reading of literature is at notably lower levels than was true of 1 8-24 year 
olds in 1982. 

Of perhaps greater concern is the failure of this increase in arts participation activities to keep 
up with the increasing levels of education since 1 982. Arts participation in 1 992 tended to be 
slightly lower for most educational levels, and the decline was greater for those with at least 
some college education. In other words, college educated people in 1992 were less likely to 
attend live arts performances and events than their counterparts in 1982. 

More similar to 1982 was the replicated finding that people who participated in one type of 
arts event (e.g. jazz) were more likely to participate in others (e.g. opera, ballet). This is an 
example of the "more,more" principle, which describes several other patterns of arts attitudes 
and behavior in the data. This principle is that participation in one arts activity tends to 
stimulate additional participation in that activity and in other arts activities. 

2. Media Audiences for Arts Programming 



In general, far more people are reached by arts content in the mass media of TV, radio and 
recordings than by attendance at live performances. Thus, twice as many respondents 
reported attending to a classical music performance on TV (25%), on radio (26%) or on 
records,tapes or CDs (31 %) than attended a live performance (12.5%). More people report 
seeing a program about the visual arts on TV (32%) than attending an art gallery or museum 
(27%). 

SPPA'92 has found that video recordings of arts programming are beginning to make notable 
inroads in expanding the arts audience. Between 2% and 4% of respondents reported 

55 



watching video recorded arts programming of jazz/opera/visual arts/etc. in the previous year, 
and many of these viewers reported watching only videotapes and not broadcast programs. 

When multiplied by the number of such broadcast/video viewings seen, the video audience 
becomes considerably larger than the audience for live events. Thus, respondents estimate 
more than 500 million viewings of visual arts programs in 1992, in contrast to 163 million 
attendances at art galleries/museums. Moreover, the 32% who saw visual arts programs on 
broadcast TV in 1992 represented a 9 point increase over the 1982 figure of 23%; TV 
audiences for other arts programs showed no such increase, and two showed significant 
declines, as noted below. 

Moreover, the greatest increases in media arts use in SPPA'92 were not for these video 
productions, but for broadcasts of classical music and jazz on radio. That audience reach 
grew by more than half, from 18% to 28% for jazz and from 20% to 31% for classical 
music. These radio audience gains were found in all segments of the population, although 
they were slightly higher in college educated and older (age 45 to 74) age groups. 

Audience correlates of these mass media arts programs was much the same as those for 
attending live events, again in line with the "more-more" principle. Education and income 
were the main predictors, with slightly higher arts media use reported by the middle-aged, 
whites and women. 

Not all of the arts reached increased audiences in 1992. There were significant declines in 
the TV audiences for musicals/operettas (from 21% to 15%) or stage plays (from 26% to 
17%). That probably reflects some decline in the offerings of such programs since 1982. 



3. Personal Arts Participation 



In contrast to media participation, personal participation in the arts is much lower than 
attendance at live events. Nonetheless, the proportions involved represent several millions 
of American adults, far larger than the numbers who report the arts as their main occupation 
in government labor surveys. Thus, about a quarter of the sample said they had done some 
needlework in the past year; about a tenth of those who did needlework (or 2.4% - or 4.4 
million adults overall) reported that their work had been publicly displayed. Similarly, some 
8% of respondents reported having personally taken part in some form of modern/folk/tap 
dance, and a projected 2.2 million adults had done so as part of a public performance. 

In general, these personal arts participation figures were at about the same levels as in 1 982, 
with two main exceptions. There were significant declines in the proportions doing 
needlework (from 32% to 25%) and pottery and metal/leather and other crafts (from 12% 

to 8%). 

There were also notable declines in the proportion of SPPA'92 respondents who had taken 
various types of arts lessons/classes at some point in their lives. This was particularly the 
case for music lessons (which declined from 47% in 1982 to 40% in 1992) and lessons in 

56 



the visual arts (from 25% to 1 8%). The only increase was for taking art appreciation classes - 
- from 20% to 23%. 

There also were notable changes in participation in several non-arts activities. There was 
a 9 point increase in the proportion of respondents who did exercises and a 5 point increase 
in those who did volunteer/charity work. These increases in potentially competing 
discretionary-time activities did not prevent an increase of 2 percentage points (from 39% 
in 1 982 to 41 % in 1 992) in the respondents who attended at least on one of the benchmark 
arts activities during the previous year. The proportion of respondents who attended arts 
activities (41%) was larger than the proportion who attended a live sports event (37%) in 
the previous year. 

All three of these activities - personal participation, arts lessons/classes and other leisure 
activities provide further examples of the "more,more" principle. Those who personally 
participate in the arts, who have taken lessons/classes in the arts, and who have taken part 
in other leisure activities are all more likely to attend live arts performances. 

One activity that does not follow that principle is TV viewing. Heavier TV viewers in 
general are less likely to attend arts performances, and the more they watch the less they 
attend. This is true despite the finding that respondents who use TV for arts programs are 
more likely to attend. Thus, it is less how much TV is used than what it is used for that 
affects attendance. TV hours were at the same level as in 1982, but were up slightly from 
1985 levels. 



Arts Attitudes 



One of the more encouraging findings in SPPA 92 was that 71% of respondent who 
expressed an interest in attending more arts performances/displays. These high levels of 
interest were found for all seven benchmark arts activities, and roughly in proportion to the 
levels currently attending. Further reflecting the "more,more" principle was the finding that 
those expressing interest in attending more events were those already most active in 
attendance. Levels of such interest in 1992 were also at higher levels than in 1982. 

Further insights into Americans' arts participation came from a parallel 12-city study, in 
which many of the SPPS'92 questions were included to identify additional correlates and 
stimulants to arts participation. Those studies also showed that many of the SPPA findings 
were replicated independently at the community level. It was also possible to link 
attendance to specific arts events and venues in that community. Further ways to apply the 
"more, more" principle and other survey findings to arts policy were uncovered in these 12 
communities. 



57 



B. Conclusions 



This report illustrates some of the potentials of SPPA'92 as a comprehensive and multifaceted 
source of national survey data concerning the American public's arts activities. The data are 
widely applicable for arts planning and development. 

This report identifies major demographic determinants of arts participation, in particular, a 
person's level of education. Within certain education categories, income, gender, and age also 
seem to exert some influence on patterns in arts participation. 

There is a tendency for people already involved and active in leisure pursuits and arts-related 
activities to participate more. Thus, present arts participants are more likely to watch or listen 
to arts-related content in the broadcast and recorded media. Nonetheless, as with all the factors 
in this study, it is not possible to state definitively which factors are causes of arts participation 
and which are results of attending some arts events. 



58 



Appendix A 



Live Attendance Items 



Appendix A.1 
Live Arts Attendence Items on SPPA 92 Questional 



The following questions are about YOUR 
activities during the LAST 1 2 months- 
between 1 , 1 9 , and 

. 19 



With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances, did YOU go to a live 
jazz performance during the LAST 1 2 
MONTHS? 

No 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 1 2 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



2. (With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances,) Did you go to a live 
classical music performance such as 
symphony, chamber, or choral music 
durin g the LAST 1 2 MONTHS? 

□ No 

Yes - About how many times did you do 

this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



3. (With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances,) Did you go to a live 
oper a during the LAST 1 2 MONTHS? 
Qno 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 1 2 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



4. (With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances,) Did you go to a live 
musical stage play or an operetta during 
the L AST 12 MONTHS? 
□ No 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



5. (With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances,) Did you go to a live 
performance of a non-musical stage play 
durin g the LAST 1 2 MONTHS? 
□ No 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 1 2 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



6. (With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances,) Did you go to a live 
ballet performance during the LAST 12 
MON THS? 

I I No 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



7. (With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances.) Did you go to a live 
dance performance other than ballet, such 
as modern, folk, or tap during the LAST 12 
MONTHS? 

I I No 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 1 2 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



8. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
visit an ART museum or gallery? 

□ No 

Yes • About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 1 2 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



9. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
visit an ART fair or festival, or a CRAFT fair 
or festival? 

□ No 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



1 0. (During the LAST 1 2 MONTHS,) Did you 
visit a histoic park or monument, or 
tour buildings, or neighborhoods for their 
historic or design value? 



No 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



1 1 . With the exception of books required for 
work or school, did you read any books 
during the LAST 1 2 MONTHS? 



I I No 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



12. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
read any - 

Read answer categories 

a. Plays? 

I I No | I Yes 

b. Poetry? 

I I No □ Yes 

c. Novels or short stories? 



| | No | | Yes 



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Appendix A. 4. 

1982-1992 Differences in Benchmark Arts Attendance Rates 
by Demographic Groups 



Total Sample: 



Classical 
Jazz Music 

+1.0 -0.5 



Opera Musicals 
♦0.3 -1.2 



Art Reading 
Plays Ballet Museums Literature 



+ 1.6 



+0.5 



+4.6 



•2.4 



Gender: 

Male 
Female 

Race: 

White 
Black 
Other 

Age: 

18-24 
25-34 
35-44 
45-54 
55-64 
65-74 
75+ 

Education: 

Grade School 
Some High School 
High School Grad 
Some College 
College Grad 
Graduate School 

Income: 

Under $5,000 

5,000-9,999 

10,000-14,999 

15,000-24,9999 

25,000-49,999 

50,000 and over 

Not ascertained 



♦2 








-1 


♦1 


-1 


♦1 





-3 


+3 


-6 


-1 


-1 


-3 


+5 


-4 


+4 


+2 


+3 


+3 


♦5 


+2 


♦1 


+1 


-1 





-2 


-1 


-1 


-1 


-1 


-4 


+1 


-7 


+5 


-3 


-2 


-4 


-3 


-3 


-3 


-4 





-1 





-6 


+ 1 


-8 


+ 1 


-1 



+ 1 


-2 





-1 





-2 


+1 


+4 


+2 


-2 


+1 


-1 





-4 





-5 





+ 1 


+1 


+ 1 


+1 


♦3 











-1 





-1 


-1 


-1 


-1 


-5 


-1 


-8 


+1 


-8 


+1 


-2 





-2 





-6 





-3 


-2 


-10 


-2 


-10 





-1 



+2 
+2 



+1 
+6 
+2 



+3 


-1 
+4 
+3 
+3 
+2 







+1 



-3 

-1 



+1 


-2 
+ 1 
-4 
•10 
+4 



+1 


+6 





+4 





+4 


+1 


+7 


+2 


+1 


+1 


+6 





+3 


-1 


♦3 


+1 


+7 


+1 


+6 


+1 


+6 





+2 





+1 


+1 














♦2 


-1 


+2 


-2 


+3 


-1 





+ 1 


+ 1 


-2 


-6 


-1 


+2 


-2 


-2 


-1 


-3 





+5 



•2 
■3 



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+3 
-9 



-7 
-8 
-1 
+2 

+3 
-1 



-4 
-7 
-5 
-8 
-9 
-6 



-3 

-6 
•10 

-6 
•10 

-6 

-7 



Appendix B 



Media Attendance Items 



Appendix B.1 
Media Attendence Items on SPPA '92 Questionnaire 



d. (During 5m LAST 12 MONTHS.) Old you 
listen to opera record*, tap**, or compact 



13. (During tha LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
ll*t*n to- 

a. A reading o( poatry _] No £ J Y «* 

either Uva or racordad? 



b. A reading ol novai* or 

book* either liva D No (Z 3 V " 

or racordad? 



14a. (During tha LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
watch • jazz partormanca on television or 
a vidao (VCR) lap*? 
~] No - Skip to flam 14c 

Yes- Was thai on TV . VCR. or both? 
□ TV □ Both 

I I VCR 



b. About how many timac did you do this in 
tha LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Numbar of times 



c. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Oid you 
listen to |azz on the radio? 



□ 



No 



□ 



Yet 



d. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
listen to iazz records, tapes, or compact 
discs? 



□ *• □ 



Yes 



15a (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
watch a classical music performance on 
television or on video (VCR) tape? 
J No - Skip to Itam 1Sc 

Yes - Was that on TV , VCR. or both? 
^J TV ^] Both 

2 VCR 



b. About how many times did you do this in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number ot times 



c (Dunng the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
listen to classical music on the radio? 



□ 



No 



□ 



Yes 



d. (Dunng the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
listen to classical music records, tapes, or 
compact discs? 



□ N ° □ 



Yes 



16a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
watch an opera on television or a video 
(VCR) tape'' 

J No - Skip to Item 1 6c 

Yes - Was that on TV . VCR. or both? 
2 TV "2 Both 

2 VCR 



b. About how many times did you do this in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number ol Omes 



di sc*? 
| J NO 



I I*" 



17a. With the exception of movie*, did you 
watch a musical stag* play or an operetta 
on television or video (VCR) tap* during 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 
2 No -Skip to Itam 17c 

Y** - Wa* that on TV , VCR. or both? 
"2 TV "J Both 



I I VCR 



b. About how many times did you do this in 
th* LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



c. (Dunng th* LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
listen to * musical stag* play or an operetta 
o n th* r adio? 
I I No □ Ye. 



d. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
listen to a musical stag* play or an operetta 
o n reco rd*. tap*s , or co mpact discs? 
I I No □ Y*. 



1Sa. With the exception ot movies, situation 
comedies, or TV series, did you watch a 
non-musical stag* play on television or a 
vidao (VCR) tape during the LAST 12 
MO NTHS? 
"J No - Strip fo Item 18c 

Yes - Was that on TV , VCR. or both? 

2 tv 2 bo* 



2 VCR 



b. About how many times did you do this in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



c (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
listen to a radio performance ol a 
non-musical stag e play ? 
I I No [_J Yes 



19a. With the exception of music videos, did 
you watch on television ot video (VCR) 
tape dance such as ballet, modem, folk, 
or tap dunng the LAST 12 MONTHS? 
2 No - Skip to rrem 20a 

Yes - Was that on TV . VCR. or both? 
2 TV 2 Bo* 



2 VCR 



b. About how many times did you do this in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



20a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
watch a program about artists, art works, 
or art mu**m* on television or • vidao 
(VCR) tap*? 
2 No - Skip to It am 2! 

Yes - Was that on TV. VCR. or both? 



2 TV 2 Bo,h 

^J VCR 



c. (Dunng the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
listen to opera music on the radio? 



b. About how many times did you do this in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



□ 



No 



□ 



Yes 



Number ol time* 



1 



1 

I 

Wla 



rand Mean: 

'render: 

Male 
Female 



White 
Black 
Other 



kge: 



APPENDIX B.2 
Arts Media Audiences by Demographic Factors: 1992 



18-24 
25-34 
35-44 
45-54 
55-64 
65-74 
75-96 

Education: 

Grade School 
Some High School 
High School Grad 
Some college 
College Graduate 
Graduate School 

[income: 

Under $5,000 

$5,000-9,999 

$10,000-14,999 

$15,000-24,999 

$25,000-49,999 

$50,000+ 

Not ascertained 





Jazz 




TV 


Radio 


Rec 


20.9 


28.2 


20.6 


23 


31 


23 


19 


26 


19 


19 


26 


19 


35 


45 


36 


18 


25 


15 


16 


28 


22 


21 


35 


26 


24 


34 


24 


23 


28 


20 


22 


24 


16 


20 


19 


12 


12 


12 


7 


7 


9 


4 


11 


12 


6 


16 


22 


14 


26 


35 


27 


29 


44 


34 


36 


49 


40 


13 


21 


12 


13 


16 


11 


17 


20 


13 


21 


26 


17 


22 


30 


22 


29 


40 


33 


20 


27 


20 



Classical Music 
TV Radio Rec 



25.1 



23 
27 



26 
17 

30 



15 
19 
24 
29 
35 
35 
29 



10 
12 
19 
29 
35 
50 



14 
16 
20 
23 
25 
36 
27 



30.8 



31 
31 



32 
20 
36 



23 
28 
35 
38 
35 
29 
23 



11 
12 
22 
36 
49 
63 



18 
18 
22 
26 
32 
47 
32 



23.8 



23 
24 



25 
13 
27 



23 
22 
27 
27 
26 
22 
13 



6 
6 
15 
29 
41 
53 



11 
12 
14 
19 
25 
40 
27 



I 

I 



APPENDIX B.2 
Arts Media Audiences by Demographic Factors: 



1992 (continued) 



rand Mean: 

ender: 

Male 
Female 

ace: 

White 
Black 
Other 

ge: 

18-24 
25-34 
35-44 
45-54 
55-64 
65-74 
75-96 

ducation: 

Grade School 
Some high School 
High School Grad 
Some college 
College Grad 
Grad School 

ncome: 

Under $5,000 

5,000-9,999 

10,000-14,999 

15,000-24,999 

25,000-49,999 

50,000+ 

Not ascertained 





















Art 




Opera 






Musical 






Play 


Dance 


Museums 


TV 


Radio 


Rec 


TV 


Radio 


Rec 


TV 


Radio 


TV 


TV 


11.6 


8.7 


6.9 


15. 


1 3.5 


5.7 


16.8 


2.8 


18.8 


31.6 


11 


8 


7 


14 


3 


5 


16 


3 


16 


32 


12 


9 


7 


17 


4 


6 


18 


3 


21 


31 


12 


9 


7 


15 


4 


6 


17 


3 


19 


33 


11 


6 


4 


13 


2 


3 


15 


4 


18 


24 


13 


8 


10 


16 


5 


8 


14 


4 


22 


24 


6 


4 


4 


8 


2 


5 


10 


2 


14 


26 


8 


5 


5 


12 


2 


5 


12 


3 


16 


32 


11 


8 


7 


15 


3 


7 


17 


3 


19 


34 


15 


12 


9 


17 


4 


8 


21 


3 


20 


37 


17 


14 


11 


21 


5 


6 


23 


2 


25 


34 


15 


13 


9 


20 


5 


5 


22 


3 


22 


29 


17 


9 


5 


18 


4 


2 


17 


2 


20 


21 


5 


4 


2 


7 


2 


2 


7 


1 


11 


13 


6 


3 


2 


7 


1 


1 


9 


1 


12 


17 


8 


5 


4 


12 


2 


3 


13 


2 


15 


26 


14 


10 


8 


18 


4 


6 


18 


3 


22 


39 


15 


12 


11 


21 


6 


10 


25 


4 


25 


42 


27 


24 


19 


28 


8 


17 


34 


7 


31 


52 


6 


5 


3 


7 


1 


4 


9 


1 


14 


21 


8 


4 


3 


10 


2 


2 


11 


3 


14 


21 


10 


6 


4 


13 


4 


3 


12 


3 


16 


25 


10 


7 


4 


14 


3 


4 


14 


2 


19 


30 


12 


9 


7 


16 


4 


5 


18 


3 


18 


33 


16 


14 


12 


20 


5 


11 


25 


4 


24 


43 


14 


10 


9 


17 


4 


7 


17 


3 


20 


31 



APPENDIX B.3 
Arts Media Audiences by Demographic Factors: 1982 









Jazz 








TV 


Radio 


Rec 


■Grand 


Mean: 


18.1 


18.3 


20.2 


■Gender: 










Male 


20 


21 


21 




Female 


17 


16 


19 


.Race: 












White 


17 


16 


22 




Black 


28 


36 


37 




Other 


21 


23 


21 


Age: 












18-24 


18 


25 


27 




25-34 


23 


26 


28 




35-44 


17 


16 


18 


I 


45-54 


19 


17 


19 


| 


55-64 


20 


14 


16 




65-74 


12 


29 


10 


1 


75-96 


4 


2 


1 


{Education: 










Grade School 


5 


7 


5 




Some High School 


10 


12 


12 




High School Graduate 


17 


16 


17 




Some College 


22 


21 


26 


' 


College Graduate 


26 


27 


32 




Graduate School 


36 


34 


39 


Income: 










Under $5,000 


13 


16 


13 




$5,000-9,999 


12 


19 


15 




$10,000-14,999 


15 


16 


17 




$15,000-24,999 


20 


19 


22 




$25,000-49,000 


22 


19 


24 




$50,000+ 


26 


20 


30 




Not ascertained 


22 


19 


22 



Classical Music 
TV Radio Rec 



24.7 



24 
26 



26 
16 
31 



16 
21 
26 
34 
33 
26 
20 



10 
13 
22 
28 
40 
49 



15 
16 
22 
27 
32 
46 
26 



20.1 



20 
21 



20 
15 
11 



12 
22 
25 
23 
23 
17 
13 



9 
12 
14 
21 

40 
51 



12 
15 
15 
21 
25 
40 
27 



22.2 



21 
23 



23 

13 
31 



16 
26 
25 
26 
26 
17 
10 



6 
10 
16 
27 
43 
56 



11 
14 
18 
24 
28 
38 
29 



APPENDIX B.3 
Arts Media Audiences by Demographic Factors: 1982 (Continued) 







Opera 






Musical 






Play 


Dance 


Museum: 




TV 


Radio 


Rec 


TV 


Radio 


Rec 


TV 


Radio 


TV 


TV 


Grand Mean: 


12.1 


7.2 


7.6 


20. 


6 4.5 


8.5 


26. 


4 3.8 


16.7 


23.1 


Gender: 
















j 






Male 


11 


7 


7 


21 


5 


7 


26 


4 


12 


23 


Female 


17 


7 


8 


22 


4 


10 


27 


4 


21 


23 


Race: 






















White 


12 


5 


8 


21 


4 


10 


27 


4 


17 


23 


Black 


9 


5 


4 


18 


5 


3 


19 


5 


23 


26 


Other 


20 


15 


13 


20 


8 


10 


21 


3 


26 


25 


Age: 






















18-24 


6 


4 


3 


16 


2 


7 


22 


5 


11 


18 


25-34 


8 


6 


5 


22 


4 


7 


29 


5 


16 


26 


35-44 


13 


6 


9 


20 


5 


11 


28 


3 


19 


24 


45-54 


18 


2 


12 


25 


8 


14 


31 


4 


20 


27 


55-64 


19 


10 


13 


23 


4 


10 


27 


3 


21 


26 


65-74 


14 


8 


8 


21 


3 


5 


24 


3 


17 


20 


75-96 


13 


7 


7 


17 


4 


3 


17 


2 


14 


12 


Education: 






















Grade School 


4 


4 


3 


9 


1 


2 


7 


1 


8 


5 


Some High School 


8 


4 


4 


9 


3 


3 


12 


2 


9 


12 


High School Grad 


11 


4 


6 


18 


3 


5 


23 


3 


13 


21 


Some College 


14 


8 


8 


27 


5 


9 


32 


5 


18 


29 


College Grad 


19 


14 


15 


30 


9 


22 


44 


5 


32 


37 


Grad School 


23 


18 


18 


39 


11 


24 


54 


9 


34 


43 


Income: 






















Under $5,000 


7 


5 


3 


11 


4 


4 


13 


4 


12 


13 


$5,000-9,999 


8 


5 


4 


15 


3 


4 


19 


4 


11 


16 


$10,000-14,999 


9 


6 


6 


17 


4 


5 


21 


3 


12 


18 


$15,000-24,999 


13 


6 


8 


22 


4 


8 


28 


4 


18 


23 


$25,000-49,999 


15 


8 


9 


26 


5 


13 


34 


5 


22 


33 


$50,000+ 


24 


15 


13 


36 


12 


20 


55 


2 


29 


43 


Not ascertained 


13 


11 


12 


22 


8 


11 


26 


3 


18 


21 



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co 


f 
a 


> 


5 


■D 


o 

c 


a> 


CO 

c 

JR 


rn 


£ 


C 


co 


C 


fi 


c 
c 


<1 

a 


i 


d 


>- 


c 
c 


— 


Q. 



c. 

JC 

to 

6 

z 



S 

>- 



D D 



Appendix Table C.2 
Personal Participation Rates for Various Arts Activities by Demographic Factors: 



1992 





Play 


Play 


Classical 


Jazz 


Music 



Sing Sing Sing Act in 
Opera Musicals Choir Plays 



Grand Mean: 

Gender: 

Male 
Female 

Race: 

White 
Black 
Other 

Age: 

18-24 
25-34 
35-44 
45-54 
55-64 
65-74 
75* 

Education: 

Grade School 
Some High School 
High School Grad 
Some Col lege 
College Grad 
Graduate School 

Income: 

Under $5,000 

5,000-9,999 

10,000-14,999 

15,000-24,9999 

25,000-49,999 

50,000 and over 

Not ascertained 



1.7 



2 
1 



2 
2 

2 



3 
2 
2 
1 
2 

1 

« 




1 
1 

2 
3 
3 



3 
1 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 



4.2 



3 
5 



4 
3 
5 



6 
3 
4 

5 
5 
4 

3 



1 

1 
2 
6 
8 
9 



2 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
4 



1.1 



1 

* 



1 
1 
1 
2 
2 

1 

» 



1 

2 
2 
3 



3.8 



3 
5 



4 

2 
4 



2 
4 
4 
5 
5 
4 
2 



1 
1 
3 
5 
6 
9 



1 
2 
3 
3 
4 
6 
4 



6.4 



5 
7 



6 
11 

2 



5 

7 
7 
7 
8 
5 
2 



4 
4 
6 
7 
7 
9 



5 
6 
7 
7 
7 
5 
4 



1.6 



2 

2 



1 
3 




3 

2 
2 

2 
1 
1 

1 



1 
2 
2 
2 
2 



1 
1 
1 
2 

2 
2 
1 



illet 


Dance 


0.2 


8.1 





8 


.4 


8 


.2 


8 


.1 


8 


1.0 


9 


.4 


11 


.5 


10 


.1 


7 





6 





6 


.2 


9 





5 





4 





4 


.2 


8 


.4 


10 


.3 


8 


.2 


10 


1.0 


7 


.2 


7 





7 


-2 


9 


* 


8 


.3 


8 


.4 


8 



(*) Less than 0.12 



Appendix C.2 (continued) 
Personal Participation Rates for Various Arts Activities by Demographic Factors: 1992 



Creative Buy Own 

Pottery Needwork Photograph Painting Writing Compose Art Work Art Work 



Grand Mean: 


5740 


Gender: 




Male 


2483 


Female 


3246 


Race: 




White 


4975 


Black 


587 


Other 


152 


Age: 




18-24 


608 


25-34 


1259 


35-44 


1258 


45-54 


865 


55-64 


702 


65-74 


650 


75-96 


393 


Education: 




Grade School 


443 


Some High School 


570 


High School Grad 


2121 


Some College 


1226 


College Grad 


811 


Graduate School 


535 


Income: 




Under $5,000 


276 


5,000-9,999 


453 


10,000-14,999 


611 


15,000-24,9999 


1030 


25,000-49,999 


1859 


50,000 and over 


1006 


Not ascertained 


500 



8.4 



8 
9 



9 
8 

5 



9 

10 
10 
9 
6 
6 
3 



2 

7 
8 
12 
9 
8 



7 
4 
8 
8 
10 
8 
8 



24.8 



5 
43 



26 
15 

24 



18 
24 
25 
26 
27 
29 
26 



22 
25 
25 
26 
26 
21 



22 
27 
26 
26 
25 
23 
24 



11.6 



13 
10 



12 

11 

9 



11 
15 
13 

13 
10 

7 
2 



3 

5 

9 

15 

16 

22 



6 

7 

8 

9 

13 

17 

12 



9.6 



9 

10 



10 

5 
10 



19 
10 
10 
8 
6 
6 
4 



1 

5 

9 

13 

12 

13 



8 
8 
8 

10 
10 
11 
11 



7.4 



7 
8 



7 

6 

11 



14 

7 
8 

7 
5 
5 
2 



3 

4 

11 

12 

16 



7 
7 
6 
7 
7 
9 
9 



2.1 



3 
1 



2 

3 
1 



4 
3 
3 

1 
2 

1 

* 



1 
2 
3 
3 
3 



2 
2 

3 
2 
2 
2 

3 



22.1 



22 
22 



24 

12 

8 



13 
19 
27 
29 
26 
20 
17 



4 
11 
15 
27 
32 
49 



10 
10 
14 
17 
22 
40 
24 



7.2 



7 
7 



8 
5 
2 



5 
8 
9 
9 
6 
6 
4 



1 
4 
5 
9 
10 
18 



3 
3 
5 
6 
7 
14 
8 



(*) Less than 0.1X 



Appendix C J 
Lesaona Items on SPPA 02 Questionnaire 



38a. Have you EVER taken Knom or ctaaaaa In 
music - althar voice training or playing an 
an instrument? 

1 Q] No- Skip to /lam 30a 
zdvaa 


39c. Were these lessons or ctaaaae ottered by the 
Elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take theee lesaona 

elsewhere? 

1 L J Elementary/high school 

2 C D Elsewhere 


b. Did you taka theee taaaona whan you wara • 
Read categories (Do not read category 4 il 
respondent Is under 25 years old. ) 
Mark (X) mil that apply. 

1 | | Last than 12 yaara old 

2 Q^] 12-17 yaara old 


3 Q Both 


CHECK 
ITEMD 


Refer to Item 38b 

If box 4 Is marked In item 39b. ASK itam 39d. 




If not - la box 2 or 3 marked In Item 39b AND 
the respondent Is under 25 years old? 


3 Qj 18-24 yaara old 


] No- Skip to Itam 40a 


4 L ~J 25 or oldar 


| | Yea- As* ham 30d 


1 CHECK 
1 ITEM A 


I Refer to Item 30b 

I Is box 1 or 2 marked In item 38b? 


3Sd. Old you take any of these lesaona or 
clasaea in the past year? 

1 (~)no 




3 No- Skip to Check Item B 


] Yes- As* Itam 38c 


2(Z)Yes 


38c. Were these lesaona or clasaea ottered by the 
Elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lessons 
elsewhere? 


40a. (Have you EVER taken lesaona or classes) 
acting or theater? 

1 L J No- Skip to itam 41a 


1 L _J Elemantary/high school 

2 Q Elsewhere 

3 Q] Both 


2(~1 V«» 


b. Oid you take theee leaaons when you were - 
Read categories. (Do not read category 4 il 
respondent Is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (X) all that apply. 

1 \_ _) Less than 12 years old 

2 | 1 12-17 years old 

3 L_J 18-24 years old 

4 [" J 25 or older 


CHECK 
I ITEMB 


1 Reler to item 38b 
II box 4 is marked in item 38b. ASK item 38d. 




It not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 38b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old'' 

J No- Skip to item 30a 

~2 Yes- Ask item 38d 




CHECK 
ITEME 


Reler to item 40b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 40b? 


33d Did you lake any ol these lessons or 
classes in the past year? 

1 C D No 

2 (Z|Yes 




J No- Skip to Check item F 
J Yes- As* item 40c 


40c. Were these lessons or classes ottered by the 
Elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lessons 
elsewhere? 

1 L J Elementary/high school 

2 C D Elsewhere 

3 Q Both 


39a (Have you EVER taken lessons or 

classes) in visual arts such as sculpture, 
painting, print making, photography, or 
film making? 

1 L J N °- S*ip to item 40a 

2D Yes 


b Oid you take these lessons when you were • 
Read categories. (Do not read category 4 II 
respondent is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (X) all that apply. 


CHECK 
ITEMF 


Refer to item 40b 

If box 4 Is marked In Item 40b. ASK item 40d 






1 (_ J Lass than 12 years old 


If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked In Item 40b ANO 
the respondent Is under 25 years old? 


2 | 1 12- 17 years old 


J No- Skip to Item 41a 


3 | 1 18-24 years old 

4 r J 25 or older 


I Yes- As* Item 40d 


40d. Oid you take any of these lessons or 
classes in the past year? 

1 | |nq 
2(~1 Y *« 


CHECK 

ITEMC 


Reler to item 39b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 39b 1 


I 


~2 No- Skip to Check Itam D 


3 Yee- As* m»m 30c 





Appendix C 2. continued 



41a. (Have you EVER ukn leaeona or dtntil In 
ballet? 

1 £ ^ No- S*/p lo ham 42a 


4 2c. Wl 
Ele 

at* 

at* 

« 
2 
3 


•** thee* laaaona of claaaaa ottered by the 
mentary or high achool you ware 
mdrng or did you take theee laaaon* 


2 |" ) Ye. 


J Elementary/high achool 


b. Did you take theee lessons when you war* ■ 
Read categories. (Do not read category 4 il 
respondent Is under 26 years old.) 
Mark (X) all that apply. 

1 £ J Lata than 12 year* old 

2 Q^] 12-17 year* old 

3 £^18-24 year* old 

4 Q J 25 or older 


3 Elsewhere 


] Both 


CHECK 
ITEM J 


Reler lo Ham 42b 

If box 4 la marked In ham 42b. ASK Item 42d. 




rf not - la box 2 or 3 marked In Item 41b AND 
the respondent Is under 25 years old? 


J No- Skip to item 42a 


2 Yev As* Ifm 41d 


CHECK 
ITEM G 


Refer to item 41b 

1* bo i 1 or 2 marked in item 41b? 




4 2d Did you lake any ot theee laaaona or 




J No- Skip to Check Hern H 


da 

1 

2 


sacs in the past year? 


] Yes- As* Item 41c 


|Nc 


Hy., 


41c. Were theae laaaona or claaaaa ottered by me 
Elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lesson* 
elsewhere? 

1 [~ J Elemenury/high school 

2 C D E |sewnere 

3 C J Botn 




43*. Hav 
crea 

1 

2 


m you EVER taken lessons or claaaaa in 
ove writing? 


J No- Skip to item 42a 


:>•. 


b. Did you take these lessons when you were - 
Read categories. (Do not read category 4 il 
respondent is under 25 years old. ) 


CHECK 
ITEM H 


[Reler to item 41b 
If box 4 is merked in item 41b. ASK item 4ld. 


Hm 
i 

2 
3 

4 


* (X) all that apply. 






_! Less than 12 year* old 


II not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 41b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old? 

_J No- Skip to item 42a 

2 Yes- Ask item 41d 




J 12-17 yeersold 


^ 16-24 year* old 


1 25 or older 


4ld. Did you lake any of these lessons or 
classes in the past year? 

1 Q3 No 
2Q Yes 


CHECK 
ITEMK 


Refer to item 43b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 41b? 






J No- Skip to Check item L 


J Yes- As* item 43c 


42a. (Have you EVER taken lessons or classes) in 
dance, other than ballet such as modem, folk, 
or tap? 

1 L J N °- Skip to item 43a 

2 d Yes 


43c. W 
Eh 
an 

all 

1 
2 

3 


rr* these lessons or classes ottered by the 
mentary or high achool you ware 
ending or did you take these lessons 
awhere? 


_] Elementary/high school 




J Elsewhere 


b Did you take these lessons when you were - 
flead categories. (Do not read category 4 il 
respondent is under 25 years old. ) 
Mark (X) all that apply. 

1 [_ J Lass than 12yeersold 

2 £^ 12-17 years old 

3 LJ 18-24 year* old 

4 LJ 25 or older 




2 Both 


CHECK 
ITEML 


Refer to Item 43b 

If box 4 is marked in item 43b. ASK Item 43d. 




If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 43b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old? 


J No- Skip to Item 44a 


2 Y ««- As* Hem 43d 


CHECK 

ITEM I 


Refer to item 42b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked In item 42b? 


43d. Oid you take eny ot theae nitons or 
clesaaa In the par year? 






1 
2 




J No- Skip to Check Item H 


I No 




J Yea- As* Item 41c 


D v - 



* 



Appendix C.3. continued 



44a. (Have you EVER taken a clasa) in an 
appreciation or art hietory? 


CHECK 
ITEMO 


Refer to item 45b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked In Item 45b? 




1 C D No_ Sklp ,o """ 45 * 




3 No- Skip to Check Item L 


2Qvea 


3 Yea- Asa Item 44c 




b. Oid you take this clasa when you were - 
need categories. (Do not read caimgory 4 II 
r e j ponder* is under 25 years old. 1 
Mark (X) all that apply 

t \_ J Leas than 12 years old 

2 Q^ 1 2- 1 7y«« r «old 

3 Q~] 18-24 years old 

4 L J 25 or older 


45c. Was this class offered by the elementary or 
high school you were attending or did you 
take these dessee eteewhere? 

1 [~ _J Elementary/high school 

2 CD H"""***" 

3 Q^] Both 


CHECK 
ITEMP 


Refer to Item 45b 

II box 4 is marked In item 45b ASK Item 45d 








CHECK 

ITEM M 


Refer to item 44b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 44b? 


If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked In item 45b ANO 
the respondent is under 25 years ofd? 

3 No- Skip to Item 46a 




] No- Skip to Check Item L 


J Yes- As* item 44c 


] Yes- As* Item 45d 




44c. Was this class ottered by the elementary or 
high school you were attending or did you 
take these classes elsewhere'' 


4Sd. Did you take this class in the past year? 
□ no 




1 (_ _j Elementary/high school 

2 Q Elsewhere 

3 Q^] Both 


□ v.s 




b. What Is the highest grade (or year) of regular 
school your FATHER completed? 

1 | | 7th grade or less 

2 | | 8th grade or less 

3 CD 9 ttl - 11tn 9'«a«s 




CHECK 
ITEM N 


Refer to item 44b 

It box 4 is marked in item 44b. ASK item 44d 




It not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 44b ANO 
the respondent is under 25 years old? 


J No- Skip to item 45a 


4 £ J 12th grade 




| 1 Yes- As* Item 44d 


5 [ | College (did not complete) 

6 [~ _J Completed college (4+ years) 

7 r "J Post graduate degree (M A . Ph.D.. M.D.. J.D. 

8 [_ _J Don't know 


etc) 


44d Did you take any of these lessons or 
classes in the past year 7 

1 [ "2 No 

2 □ Yes 


b What is the highest grade (or year) of regular 
school your MOTHER completed 7 

1 | | 7th grade or less 

2 [_ _) 8th grade or less 

3 CD 9 m -1 1th grades 

4 | | 12th grade 

5 {_ _j College (did not complete) 




45a (Have you EVER taken a class) in music 
appreciation 7 

1 L J No- Skip to item 46a 


b. Old you take this class when you were - 
Read categories. (Do not read category 4 il 
respondent Is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (X) all that apply 


1 [_ J Less than 12 years old 


6 | J Completed college (4-*- yeers) 




2 | 1 12- 17 years old 


7 Q J Post graduate degree (MA. Ph.D.. M.D.. J.D. 


etc.) 


3 (^ 18-24 years old 

4 ( J 25 or older 


8 [" D Do"'' know 




CHECK 
ITEMO 


Is this the last household member to be 
interviewed? 






• 




J No- Go 6ac« fo the NCS- 1 end Interview the 

next eligible NCS household member 
"2 Ye* END INTERVIEW 



Appendix C.4 
Lessons/Classes for Various Arts Activities by Demographic Factors: 1992 



Music Visual 
Lesson Arts Activity Ballet Dance Creative Uriting Art Appreciate Music Appreciai 



Grand Mean: 

Gender: 

Male 
Female 

Race: 

White 
Black 
Other 

Age: 

18-24 
25-34 
35-44 
45-54 
55-64 
65-74 
75-96 

Education: 

Grade School 
Some High School 
High School Grad 
Some College 
College Grad 
Graduate School 

Income: 

Under $5,000 

5,000-9,999 

10,000-14,999 

15,000-24,9999 

25,000-49,999 

50,000 and over 

Not ascertained 



39.6 17.7 7.4 



7.0 15.8 



15.6 



22.9 



36 


17 


7 


1 


10 


15 


23 


43 


18 


8 


12 


22 


16 


22 


41 


18 


8 


7 


17 


16 


23 


29 


11 


6 


5 


9 


13 


22 


28 


17 


7 


2 


9 


13 


24 


46 


24 


11 


10 


16 


24 


27 


43 


22 


9 


7 


13 


22 


26 


41 


20 


8 


10 


18 


19 


25 


41 


17 


7 


8 


18 


12 


23 


37 


13 


5 


3 


16 


8 


21 


29 


9 


4 


2 


16 


7 


17 


28 


8 


3 


1 


12 


3 


11 


7 


2 


1 


1 


3 


1 


5 


15 


5 


1 


2 


7 


1 


7 


33 


12 


4 


5 


12 


6 


13 


51 


24 


11 


11 


20 


24 


29 


58 


30 


14 


11 


24 


32 


42 


63 


34 


15 


12 


28 


36 


51 


27 


12 


5 


4 


10 


12 


17 


27 


11 


6 


3 


9 


11 


11 


28 


10 


4 


3 


12 


8 


15 


35 


17 


7 


6 


14 


13 


17 


44 


19 


8 


8 


17 


17 


25 


55 


27 


10 


11 


22 


24 


37 


38 


16 


9 


6 


16 


14 


23 



18.1 



17 
19 



19 
16 
12 



18 
19 
21 
19 
18 
16 
7 



1 

4 

8 

23 

37 

45 



12 
10 
9 
17 
19 
30 
16 



Appendix D 
Other Leisure Activity Items 



Appendix 0.1 
Other Leisure Activity Items 
on SPPA '92 Questionnaire 



22a. The following questions are about your 
participation in other leisure activities. 

Approximately how many hours of television 
do you watch on an average day? 


Number of hours 




b. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did YOU go 
out to the movies? 


[] No ] Yes 


c. With the exception of youth sports, did you 
go to any amateur or professional sports events 
events during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 


| | No I I Yes 


d. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you go to 
an amusement or theme park, a carnival, or 
a similar place of entertainment? 


"2 No ]] Yes 


e. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you jog, 
lift weights, walk, or participate in any other 
excercise program? 


^| No ] Yes 


f. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you 
participate in any sports activity, such as 
softball. basketball, golf, bowling, skiing, or 
tennis? 


] No ] Yes 


g. Did you participate in any outdoor activities, 
such as camping, hiking, or canoeing during 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 


Q "2 No ~2 Yes 


h. Did you do volunteer or charity work during 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 


"2 No ~2 Yes 


i. Did you make repairs or improvements on 
your own home during the LAST 12 
MONTHS? 


] No ] Yes 


j. Did you work with indoor plants or do any 
gardening for pleasure during the LAST 12 
MONTHS? 


] No ] Yes 



Appendix D.2 
Participation Rates in Other Leisure Activities by Demographic Factors: 1992 



■Brand Mean: 



TV Sports Amusement Play Home 

Hours Movies Events Park Exercise Sports Outdoor Charity Improvement Gardening 



3.0 59.0 



36.8 



50.2 



59.7 



38.8 



34.1 



32.6 



47.6 



54.7 



Gender: 



Race: 



! 



Age: 



Education 



Income: 



Male 




2.8 


60 


Female 




3.1 


59 


White 




2.9 


60 


Black 




3.7 


54 


Other 




2.8 


62 


18-24 




3.0' 


82 


25-34 




2.8 


70 


35-44 




2.6 


68 


45-54 




2.7 


58 


55-64 




3.2 


40 


65-74 




3.7 


34 


75-96 




3.8 


19 


ri: 

Grade Sch 


ool 


3.4 


16 


Some High 


School 


3.7 


35 


High School Grad 


3.2 


54 


Some Coll 


ege 


2.8 


21 


College G 


rad 


2.4 


77 


Graduate 


School 


2.1 


81 


Under $5, 


300 


4.1 


43 


5,000-9,999 


3.7 


35 


10,000-14 


,999 


3.6 


44 


15,000-24 


,9999 


3.2 


53 


25,000-49 


,999 


2.7 


67 


50,000 and over 


2.3 


76 


Not ascertained 


3.0 


58 



44 
30 



38 
32 

20 



51 
47 
43 
35 
23 
20 
7 



9 
19 
33 
45 
51 
51 



23 
22 
22 
32 
42 
52 
34 



51 

50 



51 
45 
46 



68 
68 
58 
44 
30 
29 
14 



24 
35 
51 
59 
58 
54 



35 
34 
39 
52 
57 
57 
46 



61 


50 


59 


29 


61 


40 


51 


32 


51 


38 


67 


59 


67 


52 


62 


44 


62 


34 


56 


21 


50 


18 


34 


7 


24 


10 


39 


18 


55 


34 


71 


49 


75 


55 


79 


57 


40 


20 


39 


21 


45 


25 


54 


36 


66 


45 


77 


54 


60 


36 



39 
29 



37 
10 
28 



43 
41 
42 
36 
21 
21 
5 



11 
21 
31 
42 
42 
51 



17 
21 
22 
34 

40 
44 
30 



30 
34 



33 
28 
23 



26 
31 
37 
36 
35 
37 
20 



17 
18 
26 
40 
43 
54 



18 
23 
25 
29 
37 
43 
26 



53 
42 



50 
32 
31 



33 
47 
58 
57 
53 
42 
20 



24 
34 
47 
53 
52 
65 



21 
25 
35 
42 
57 
64 
41 



46 
62 



57 
39 
42 



31 
51 
57 

64 
63 
63 
55 



44 
50 
53 
55 
61 
65 



40 
44 
50 
53 
60 
62 
49 



Appendix E 



Arts Attitudes Items 



Appendix E.1 
Increased Interest in Attendance 
on SPPA '92 Questionnaire 



21a. I'm going to read a list of events that some 
people like to attend. If you could go to any of 
these events as often as you wanted, which 
ones would you go to MORE OFTEN than you 
do now? I'll read the list. Go to - 



Mark (X) all that apply. 



3D 



4[ 



8 



Jazz music performance 
Classical music performance 



Operas 



Musical plays or operettas 



Non-musical plays 



6 | | Ballet performances 



Dance performances other than ballets 
Art museums or galleries 



None of these- 



Skip to item 22a 



If only one is chosen, skip to item 22a 
If more than one is chosen, ask 

b. Which of these would you like to do most? 



Category number 



No one thing most 



Appendix E.2 
Desire to Attend More Arts Performances by Demographic Factors: 1992 



Grand Mean: 

Gender: 

Male 
Female 



Race: 

White 
Black 
Other 

Age: 

18-24 
25-34 
35-44 
45-54 
55-64 
65-74 
75-96 

Education: 

Grade School 
Some High School 
High School Grad 
Some College 
College Grad 
Graduate School 

Income: 

Under $5,000 

5,000-9,999 

10,000-14,999 

15,000-24,9999 

25,000-49,999 

50,000 and over 

Not ascertained 





Classical 




Jazz 


Music 


Opera 


25.2 


25.4 


11.0 


29 


24 


9 


22 


27 


13 


22 


27 


11 


49 


14 


7 


22 


28 


13 


26 


19 


9 


32 


30 


7 


30 


27 


10 


26 


29 


13 


18 


30 


17 


15 


31 


14 


10 


24 


13 


6 


11 


6 


11 


13 


5 


22 


18 


8 


31 


30 


14 


36 


37 


14 


41 


52 


21 


22 


18 


11 


17 


18 


8 


17 


19 


8 


23 


23 


8 


27 


35 


12 


34 


37 


15 


26 


26 


13 



Musicals Plays Ballet Dance 
36.2 33.4 18.3 23.8 



30 
42 



38 
28 
26 



32 

35 
35 
40 
39 
42 
30 



12 
18 
30 
46 
50 
57 



25 
23 
23 
31 

38 
54 
37 



30 
37 



35 
28 
24 



30 
33 
29 
38 
32 
32 
23 



8 
15 
28 
42 
49 
58 



21 
22 
25 
30 
37 
47 
33 



10 


17 


26 


30 


19 


23 


12 


29 


25 


29 


17 


28 


20 


26 


19 


23 


18 


23 


19 


23 


18 


20 


16 


17 


7 


12 


8 


17 


15 


23 


23 


30 


25 


23 


31 


31 


12 


22 


15 


22 


13 


20 


17 


26 


19 


24 


23 


26 


19 


22 



Art Museum/ 
Galleries 

41.5 



40 
42 



42 
35 
36 



42 
43 
45 
45 
40 
37 
30 



8 
15 
30 
52 
66 
77 



24 
23 
22 
36 
44 
66 
41 



Appendix E.3 
Music Preference Items on 
SPPA '92 Questionnaire 



37a. I'm going to read a list of some types of 
music. As I read the list, tell me which of 
these types of music you like to listen to? 

Mark (X) all that apply. 

1 [ ~] Classical/Chamber music 

2 [ 3 Opera 

3 [ 1 Operetta/Broadway Musicals/Show tunes 

4 [ ^ Jazz 

5 [ _J Reggae (Reg gay) 

6 f J Rap music 

7 [ ^] Soul 

8 [ J Blues/Rhythm and blues 

9 [ ~] Latin/Spanish/Salsa 

P 3 Big band 

1 [ ^ Parade/Marching band 

2 [ 3 Country-western 

3 [ 3 Bluegrass 

4 [ Z] Rock 

5 [ J The music of a particular Ethnic/ 
National tradition 

6 [ 3 Contemporary folk music 

7 [ 3 Mood/Easy listening 

8 [ 3 New age music 

9 [ _J Choral/Glee club 
20 [ 3 Hymns/Gospel 

21 [ 3 AM 

22 [ 3 None/Don't like to listen to music- Skip to item 38a 

b. If only one category is marked in 37a, enter code in 
37b without asking. Which of these do you like best? 

J Category number 

3 No one type best 



Appendix E.4 
Preference Rates for Selected Types of Music by Demographic Factors: 1992 



Classical 
Jazz Music 



Grand Mean: 

Gender: 

Male 
Female 

Race: 

White 
Black 
Other 

Age: 

18-24 
25-34 
35-44 
45-54 
55-64 
65-74 
75-96 

Education: 

Grade School 
Some High School 
High School Grad 
Some Col lege 
Col lege Grad 
Graduate School 

Income: 

Under $5,000 

5,000-9,999 

10,000-14,999 

15,000-24,9999 

25,000-49,999 

50,000 and over 

Not ascertained 



33.9 



33.3 



12.1 



27.5 



38 


32 


10 


24 


30 


35 


14 


31 


32 


35 


13 


30 


54 


18 


8 


15 


26 


36 


14 


20 


30 


24 


5 


14 


41 


27 


7 


21 


39 


36 


10 


25 


33 


39 


16 


35 


30 


42 


20 


37 


27 


43 


21 


42 


21 


29 


17 


27 


10 


12 


6 


7 


15 


16 


5 


12 


28 


25 


9 


22 


42 


39 


14 


33 


50 


51 


16 


39 


54 


65 


26 


52 


27 


20 


6 


14 


21 


23 


7 


14 


25 


25 


12 


19 


29 


29 


9 


23 


36 


35 


13 


29 


47 


47 


17 


44 


35 


35 


13 


29 





Big 




Country/ 




Mood/ 


lues 


Band 


Folk 


Western 


Rock 


Easy 


40.3 


34.8 


22.7 


51.8 


43.5 


48.9 


44 


34 


23 


52 


48 


44 


37 


36 


23 


52 


39 


53 


38 


37 


24 


57 


46 


50 


59 


22 


15 


19 


23 


39 


25 


17 


18 


32 


38 


42 


39 


13 


10 


39 


70 


38 


46 


23 


19 


50 


59 


47 


46 


30 


27 


53 


57 


52 


40 


43 


32 


61 


39 


54 


35 


53 


26 


58 


14 


54 


35 


61 


26 


54 


9 


55 


23 


46 


14 


46 


7 


36 


14 


19 


9 


48 


12 


22 


26 


24 


13 


59 


27 


31 


36 


32 


20 


57 


42 


49 


50 


37 


25 


50 


54 


56 


50 


43 


28 


42 


54 


56 


59 


53 


40 


46 


53 


60 


35 


16 


11 


43 


36 


32 


30 


27 


17 


52 


32 


36 


34 


30 


18 


55 


33 


35 


35 


31 


19 


57 


39 


43 


43 


38 


26 


54 


50 


56 


52 


45 


31 


48 


55 


62 


36 


37 


20 


42 


35 


46 



Appendix F 
Survey Methodology 



1992 SURVEY METHODOLOGY 



Respondents in the survey were part of a larger continuously rotating panel of respondents who were interviewed 
every six months over a three year period. These individuals lived in households selected by the U.S. Census 
Bureau to be randomly representative of the total U.S. adult population 18 years of age and older. Census Bureau 
population counts were used to draw the sample in such a way that all individuals living in households in the United 
States had a known and equal chance of selection. The sample frame was the same as that used in the 1982 survey. 

All individuals aged 18 and over in these selected households were eligible to be included in the survey. Less than 
20% of all eligible individuals in these selected households could not be interviewed. The final data were weighted 
slightly to ensure that the final sample was completely representative of the 1992 U.S. population in terms of age, 
race and gender. 

About three-quarters of these interviews were conducted by telephone, the remainder face-to-face in the respondent's 
home. Respondents who were not at home at the time of the interviewer's visit were interviewed by telephone. 
No effective differences have been generally found between these in-home interviews and the telephone interviews. 
The interview took about eight minutes to complete for the first six months of 1992 (i.e., January through June). 

Each month's interview began with the survey's "core" questions, which referred to general arts participation during 
the previous 12 months. A second set of items about mass media usage then completed the interview. These 
questions are shown in Section III of the Appendix. 

The completed questionnaires were returned to the Census Bureau in Suitland, Maryland, where they were edited 
for final keying onto a computer tape. These coded survey answers were then merged with the coded data on each 
respondent's background (e.g., age, education, race) obtained in the panel part of the Census Bureau survey. These 
background data were then weighted to reflect U.S. population characteristics and projected to the total U.S. adult 
population. 



Appendix G 
Measurement of Sampling Errors 



MEASURING SAMPLING ERROR 



Sample 

Since survey estimates are based on a sample, they may differ somewhat from the figures that would have been 
obtained if a complete census had been taken using the same schedules, instructions, and enumerators. As in any 
survey work, the results are also subject to errors of response and of reporting, as well as being subject to sampling 
variability. 

The estimates of standard error produced from the sample data are primarily a measure of sampling variability (that 
is, of the variations that occur by chance because a sample rather than the whole of the population is surveyed). 
The estimates of standard error also partially measure the effect of response and enumeration errors, but they do 
not measure, as such, any systematic biases in the data. 

Each estimate made from the survey process has its own variance and resulting standard error. It is, however, 
impractical to compute an estimate of the variance for every sample estimate. Therefore, variances are estimated 
for a small subset of the sample estimates. These variances are then generalized to be applicable to all estimates 
from each of the various aggregate estimates (e.g., percentage attending jazz performances, percentage watching 
classical music performances on television, percentage liking rock music). 

The total error of an estimate involves a component, in addition to the variability due to sampling, which is called 
non-sampling error. This component is called the bias of the estimate. The bias is the difference between the 
average of all possible samples (this average is conceptual since only one sample is used) and the attempted value 
to be estimated. 

This is the result of: 

a. The types of estimates being produced (e.g., ratio estimate). These are known to be biased but 
are preferable to certain other unbiased estimates because of the amount of reduction they bring 
to the variance of the estimates. 

b. Systematic errors in response. These can result from recall problems, interviewer effect, 
questionnaire wording, etc. 

c. Processing errors. These can result from duplication or omission of units in the sampling frame, 
methods of adjusting for non-responses, coding, classification, and edit errors, etc. 

The amount of bias cannot be directly observed and estimated. It is known to exist, though, and during the survey 
process, efforts are made through design and control operations to limit its effect. 



I 

I 



Variance and Sample Errors for the SPPA 

With respect to the sampling errors for the SPPA portion of the sample. Appendix Table G.l shows first the 
theoretical sampling error for this size sample and then the actual observed variation for a variety of SPPA 
questions. As shown in this table, 10.6% of the SPPA'92 respondents said they attended a live jazz performance 
at least once during 1992. Using the theoretical mathematical formula to compute sampling errors, one standard 
error for this sample size (12,736) is 



.106* .899 = >0027 or >2 7% 



12,736 



The population bounds for these questions for 95 % confidence is obtained by roughly doubling this interval of .27 % , 
or about .54%. This means that the 95% confidence interval falls 0.54% above and below the average estimate. 

But that is the theoretical proportion for a completely random sample, and SPPA respondents were chosen by 
clustered random sample. As noted above, that means that clusters or segments of households (about 4) in a 
neighborhood were chosen. Since people in neighborhoods may tend to share certain characteristics (such as going 
to jazz or classical musical performances), that raises the possibility that the effective after-sample size is lower 
because of this clustering due to the homogeneity of people who live in the same area. 

Further clustering was introduced in the SPPA by interviewing more than one member in a household, since persons 
who live together also share and determine each other's activities to a greater extent than do people who share space 
in the same neighborhood. 

Methods for measuring the effect of this clustering (described as the design factor) are: (1) to treat the total sample 
as a series of random samples of half the size of the total sample; and (2) to observe how much larger the sampling 
variance for this half-sample is than the theoretical figure described here. In other words, the total sample of 12,736 
would be randomly divided into half-samples of about 6360 respondents each and the variations in estimates for 
these half-samples would be compared to the variation expected theoretically. 

For the present study, 16 such half-samples were generated. In the case of jazz performances, the first half-sample 
chosen at random produced an estimate of 1 1.2% attendance at jazz performances, or 0.6% more than the overall 
average of 10.6%. The remaining 15 half-samples respectively produced the following figures: 10.9%, 10.5%, 
10.6%, 10.3%, 9.9%, 10.3%, 103%, 10.5%, 10.3%, 9.7%, 10.8%, 11.7%, 10.7%, 11.4% and 11.3%. These 
16 estimates are clearly rather close to the observed average of 10.6%. But are they as close as the theoretical 
sampling formulas for this sample size would predict? 

That is estimated from the sum of each of the half-samples. The variation from the overall average for the first 
half-sample is 0.6%, as noted above. The variations from the overall average of the 15 remaining half-samples are, 
respectively: 0.3%, 0.1%, 0.0%, 0.3%, 0.7%, 0.3%, 0.3%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 1.1%. 0.2%, 1.1%, 0.1%, 0.8%, and 
0.7%. The average deviation for these 16 figures is about .45%; the standard deviation from the statistical formulas 
is 0.53%. In contrast, the theoretical figure for a completely random sample of 12,736 is 0.27%, which is about 
half as large as the figure that is observed. 

Therefore, we estimate that the overall design factor due to sample clustering is the ratio of 0.0053/0.0027, or 1.96. 
This means that the sample may be about 50% less efficient than an unclustered random sample of the same size. 
Thus, the effective sample for this question is only about half as large as the number of people actually interviewed. 
The design factor shown for several other questions in Table 2.3 also have ratios of about the same magnitude, but 
some design factors are considerably higher, with a few being below 2.00. The overall average design factor is 
only 2.18, which is more than double the estimates from simple random sampling and this design factor needs to 
be applied to the estimated errors from simple random sampling. 



Appendix Table G.l 



SAMPLING ERROR CALCULATIONS — 1992 SPPA Data 



Benchmark Activities: 
(n=12,736) Rate: 



Theoretical Observed 
Sampling Error 
(n=12,736) 



Jazz 


.106 


.0027 


Classical 


.125 


.0029 


Opera 


.033 


.0016 


Musicals 


.174 


.0033 


Plays 


.135 


.0030 


Ballet 


.047 


.0019 


Art Museums 


.267 


.0039 



SE 


Design 


(6,368) 


Factor 1 (t 2 ) 


.0053 


1.96(1.4) 


.0073 


2.52(1.6) 


.0032 


2.00(0.6) 


.0090 


2.73(2.2) 


.0073 


2.43(1.7) 


.0043 


2.26(0.9) 


.0112 


2.77(2.4) 



Other Arts Activities 



Read books .609 
Read 1 iterature .542 
Historic sites .407 
Arts/crft fairs. 345 
TV Jazz .209 


.0043 
.0044 
.0043 
.0042 
.0036 


.0090 
.0091 
.0111 
.0104 
.0057 


2. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
1. 


. 09 (na) 

.07(2.4) 

.58(4.1) 

.48(4.4) 

.58(1.9) 


Other Activities: 


(n=5940) 


(2970) 






Movies .582 
Sports events .3 57 
Like classical .342 


.0065 
.0062 
.0063 


.0108 
.0083 
.0125 


1. 
1. 
1. 


.66(2.8) 
.34(2.9) 
,99(2.4) 



Average 



2.18 



'Design factor = (Design Effect) * %. 

difference necessary for the 1982-1992 t-value 
statistically significant at the .05 level equals 



to be 



1.96 * \l {OSE82 * 2) + (OSE92 * 2) , 



where OSE is the observed standard error. 



Appendix H 



Areas For Additional Research 



Areas For Additional Research 



The present analysis presents only some brief highlights from this very rich source of data on 
American's arts participation. Only now are certain local and regional arts agencies beginning 
to examine the relevance and applicability of these data for their own communities. Data 
collected in future national surveys will be able to use the 1992 and 1982-85 surveys to 
determine long-term trends in the role of the arts in the daily life of the American public. This 
is the aim of a series of research projects, based on SPPA'92 data, that has been funded by the 
Research Division of the Endowment. The topics focus on the following areas: 

Jazz participation 

Classical music participation 

Musical theater, operetta, and opera participation 

Plays (non-musical) participation 

Dance participation 

Literature participation 

Participation via broadcast and recorded media 

Arts participation via personal performance or creation 

Age and arts participation 

Racial and ethnic factors in arts participation 

Education, socialization, and arts participation 

Cross-over patterns in arts participation 

We should realize, therefore, that the analysis contained in this report only scratches the surface 
of the potentials of the SPPA'92 data for future art planning and development. Data tapes are 
available to the widest possible audience and community of arts planners and researchers. 

Among the further issues concerning the SPPA'92 data that could not be addressed in this 
report are adjustments of the data for income changes between 1982 and 1992 (as well as the 
changes in costs of admission to arts events, travel, child care, etc.). Adjustment analysis also 
needs to be done for the factor of education, since it appears from our analyses that arts 
participation has not kept pace with gains in the educational level of the public. 

These analyses should also make it possible to more carefully examine the age-cohort issues 
described at the end of Chapter I in the context of specific arts activities. It should be possible 
with more extended analyses to construct exact age matches in the 1982 and 1992 data sets and 
to examine differences between older and younger "baby boomers" in more detail than has 
been possible here. 

In particular, we see the need for expanded use of the data on frequency of participation 
available for the main arts attendance questions and for viewings of video arts content. The 
demographic analyses we have presented in this report are limited in that they do not separate 
occasional from frequent arts participants, and our preliminary look at these data reveal 
important frequency differences across demographic groups and across arts activities. 

These frequency-of-participaUon data touch on central issues related to arts participation. If 
10% of the public goes to jazz performances in 1992 as in 1982, but their average number of 



attendances drops from 4 to 2, that represents a net loss of 50% in overall arts attendance — 
and much smaller net audiences to pay for tickets and sustain live performances. 

It is unfortunate that the yearly frequency questions in 1992 cannot be directly compared to 
the monthly frequency questions in 1982-85. Indeed the 1992 annual questions do appear to 
have been successful in reducing the overall extent of participation, by reducing "telescoping" 
in reporting; the concern in telescoping is that the shorter monthly focus may cause some 
respondents to overreport participation in that context relative to asking about a longer period 
such as the year. That was in fact a major concern about the monthly question in the 1982-85 
studies (e.g. Robinson et al., 1986), with evidence that the monthly question gave estimates that 
were too high in relation to the responses to the annual questions. 

In line with that hypothesis, we find far lower estimates of numbers of annual attendances in 
the 1992 data: 



APPENDIX TABLE H-l: ESTIMATED NUMBERS OF ANNUAL 
ATTENDANCES IN 1982 AND 1992 SPPA DATA 

(In Millions of Attendances) 




1982 
Monthly x 12 months = 


1992 
Annual 


1982/1992 
Ratio 


Jazz 


9.6 x 12 = 115 


57 


2.0 


Classical 


13.8 x 12 = 166 


60 


2.8 


Opera 


2.3 x 12 = 28 


10 


2.8 


Musicals 


12.8 x 12 = 154 


74 


2.1 


Stage Play 


8.0 x 12 = 96 


60 


1.6 


Ballet 


2.5 x 12 = 30 


15 


2.0 


Art Museum 


24.4 x 12 = 293 


164 


1.8 



Thus, for each benchmark activity, we see that the monthly (1982) data generate annualized 
estimates of total performances attended that are 1 .6 to 2.8 times larger than those generated 
across the year for the annual (1992) question. While that could reflect real audience 
differences across the decade, we have reason to believe that it is the question form that is 
mainly responsible for these differences and not arts participation behavior itself. 

The evidence comes from a small survey experiment conducted in April of 1993 with a sample 
of about 1 000 adults in Maryland interviewed by telephone using the two different forms of 
a general participation question. Half the respondents were asked about participation using the 
1982 monthly format first and then the 1992 yearly format; the other half were asked using the 
annual question first and then the monthly question. Consistent with the Table VII. 1 results, 
the monthly format question in both groups (after being multiplied by 12 months) generated 
annually estimates that were far larger than the yearly estimate. The ratios were 1.8 when the 



monthly question was asked first and 1.6 when the annual question was asked first - values 
close to the ratios shown in Table VII. 1. Moreover, there was evidence that asking the 
monthly question first not only elevated the monthly-annual projections but the annual 
estimates themselves. Thus, the monthly question clearly produces inflated estimates relative 
to annual question estimates and the inflation factor is sizeable. 

That means that with assumptions based on replicated and more detailed experimental data, one 
could generate annual frequency data from the 1982 data that could be useful in identifying 
whether the total volume of arts activity in key demographic groups (e.g. baby boomers or the 
poor) seems to have changed between 1982 and 1992. That would allow greater confidence 
in projections of how arts audiences have changed over the last decade in the present report 
and how they may change in the future. 

We should consider, therefore, that the analysis contained in this report only scratches the 
surface of the potential of the SPPA'92 data. With this series of national arts participation 
surveys, for the first time we have the ability to make detailed, national comparisons of 
patterns of participation over time.